Tests and diagnosis
Amniocentesis — Overview covers definition, risks, results of this prenatal test.
Chorionic villus sampling — Overview covers definition, risks, results of this early prenatal test.
Genetic testing is used to detect altered genes that may cause illness or disease. Although genetic testing can offer important health information, it has limitations.
Ultrasound imaging uses high-frequency sound waves to create images of structures in your body.
Aug. 23, 2014
- Turner syndrome. Genetics Home Reference. http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/turner-syndrome. Accessed July 22, 2014.
- Learning about Turner syndrome. National Human Genome Research Institute. http://www.genome.gov/19519119. Accessed July 22, 2014.
- Turner syndrome. National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD). https://www.rarediseases.org/rare-disease-information/rare-diseases/byID/112/viewFullReport. Accessed July 22, 2014.
- Turner syndrome. Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. http://turners.nichd.nih.gov/index.html. Accessed July 22, 2014.
- Saenger P. Clinical manifestations and diagnosis of Turner syndrome (gonadal dysgenesis). http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed July 22, 2014.
- Milbrandt T, et al. Turner syndrome. Pediatrics in Review. 2013;34:420.
- Saenger P. Management of Turner syndrome (gonadal dysgenesis). http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed July 22, 2014.
- Turner Syndrome Society of the United States. http://www.turnersyndrome.org/. Accessed July 26, 2014.
- Wick MJ (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. Aug. 1, 2014.
- Hoecker JL (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. July 27, 2014.
- Freriks K, et al. Long-term effects of previous oxandrolone treatment in adult women with Turner syndrome. European Journal of Endocrinology. 2013;168:91.
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