Shortness of breath can be frightening. Most of the time, a heart or lung condition is the cause.
Tests and diagnosis
Cardiac catheterization is used as a test for some heart conditions and as a procedure to treat some types of heart disease. Find out more.
Jan. 12, 2016
- Facts about transposition of the great arteries. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/heartdefects/tga.html. Accessed Oct. 21, 2015.
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- Fulton DR, et al. Management and outcome of D-transposition of the great arteries. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Oct. 21, 2015.
- Transposition of the great arteries. Merck Manuals Professional Edition. http://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/pediatrics/congenital-cardiovascular-anomalies/transposition-of-the-great-arteries. Accessed Oct. 21, 2015.
- Fuster V, et al., eds. Congenital heart disease in children and adolescents. In: Hurst's The Heart. 13th ed. New York, N.Y.: The McGraw-Hill Companies; 2011. http://www.accessmedicine.com. Accessed Oct. 21, 2015.
- Riggin EA. Allscripts EPSi. Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. Sept. 2, 2015.
- Kowalik E, et al. Pregnancy and long-term cardiovascular outcomes in women with congenitally corrected transposition of the arteries. International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics. 2014;125:154.
- Villafane J, et al. D-transposition of the great arteries. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 2014;64:498.
Transposition of the great arteries