Toxic shock syndrome is a rare, life-threatening complication of certain types of bacterial infections. Often toxic shock syndrome results from toxins produced by Staphylococcus aureus (staph) bacteria, but the condition may also be caused by toxins produced by group A streptococcus (strep) bacteria.
Toxic shock syndrome historically has been associated primarily with the use of superabsorbent tampons. However, since manufacturers pulled certain types of tampons off the market, the incidence of toxic shock syndrome in menstruating women has declined.
Toxic shock syndrome can affect men, children and postmenopausal women. Risk factors for toxic shock syndrome include skin wounds and surgery.
May 08, 2014
- Chu VH. Staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Dec. 24, 2013.
- Tintinalli JE, et al. Tintinalli's Emergency Medicine: A Comprehensive Study Guide. 7th ed. New York, N.Y.: The McGraw-Hill Companies; 2011. http://www.accessmedicine.com/resourceTOC.aspx?resourceID=40. Accessed Dec. 24, 2013.
- Patient alert: Medical devices. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. http://www.fda.gov/MedicalDevices/Safety/AlertsandNotices/PatientAlerts/ucm070003.htm. Accessed Dec. 24, 2013.
- Stevens DL. Epidemiology, clinical manifestations and diagnosis of streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Dec. 24, 2013.
- Stevens DL. Treatment of streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Dec. 24, 2013.