Risk factors for Tourette syndrome include:
Aug. 10, 2012
- Family history. Having a family history of Tourette syndrome or other tic disorders may increase the risk of developing Tourette syndrome.
- Being male. Males are about three to four times more likely than females to develop Tourette syndrome.
- Disorders usually first diagnosed in infancy, childhood, or adolescence. In: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders DSM-IV-TR. 4th ed. Arlington, Va.: American Psychiatric Association; 2000. http://www.psychiatryonline.com. Accessed June 26, 2012.
- Jankovic J. Tourette syndrome. http://www.uptodate.com/index. Accessed June 25, 2012.
- Tourette syndrome fact sheet. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/tourette/detail_tourette.htm. Accessed June 25, 2012.
- Bloch MH, et al. Clinical course of Tourette syndrome. Journal of Psychosomatic Research. 2009;67:497.
- 5. Kurlan R. Tourette's syndrome. New England Journal of Medicine. 2010;363:2332.
- McNaught KS, et al. Advances in understanding and treatment of Tourette syndrome. Nature Reviews Neurology. 2011;7:667.
- Hoecker JL (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. July 6, 2012.
- O'Rourke JA, et al. The genetics of Tourette syndrome: A review. Journal of Psychosomatic Research. 2009;67:533.
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