Typically, the lingual frenulum separates before birth, allowing the tongue free range of motion. With tongue-tie, the lingual frenulum remains attached to the bottom of the tongue. Why this happens is largely unknown, although some cases of tongue-tie have been associated with certain genetic factors.
April 30, 2015
- Tongue-tie (ankyloglossia). American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery. http://www.entnet.org/content/tongue-tie-ankyloglossia. Accessed March 31, 2015.
- Tongue-tie. NHS Choices. http://www.nhs.uk/conditions/tongue-tie/Pages/Introduction.aspx. Accessed March 31, 2015.
- Brookes A, et al. Tongue tie: The evidence for frenotomy. Early Human Development. 2014;90:765.
- Isaacson GC. Ankyloglossia (tongue-tie) in infants and children. http:/www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed March 31, 2015.
- Power RF, et al. Tongue-tie and frenotomy in infants with breastfeeding difficulties: Achieving a balance. Archives of Disease in Childhood. 2014;0:1.
- Webb AN, et al. The effect of tongue-tie division on breastfeeding and speech articulation: A systematic review. International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology. 2013;77:635.
- Cofer SA (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. April 4, 2015.
- Beatty CW (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. April 20, 2015.
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