Factors that may increase the risk of thyroid cancer include:
Apr. 14, 2014
- Female sex. Thyroid cancer occurs more often in women than in men.
- Exposure to high levels of radiation. Examples of high levels of radiation include those that come from radiation treatment to the head and neck and from fallout from such sources as nuclear power plant accidents or weapons testing.
- Certain inherited genetic syndromes. Genetic syndromes that increase the risk of thyroid cancer include familial medullary thyroid cancer, multiple endocrine neoplasia and familial adenomatous polyposis.
- Melmed S, et al. Williams Textbook of Endocrinology. 12th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2011. https://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed Dec. 18, 2013.
- Thyroid carcinoma. Fort Washington, Pa.: National Comprehensive Cancer Network. http://www.nccn.org/professionals/physician_gls/f_guidelines.asp. Accessed Dec. 18, 2013.
- Revised American Thyroid Association management guidelines for patients with thyroid nodules and differentiated thyroid cancer. Falls Church, Va.: American Thyroid Association. http://thyroidguidelines.net/revised/taskforce. Accessed Dec. 18, 2013.
- Niederhuber JE, et al., eds. Abeloff's Clinical Oncology. 5th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Churchill Livingstone Elsevier; 2014. http://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed Dec. 18, 2013.
- What you need to know about thyroid cancer. National Cancer Institute. http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/wyntk/thyroid. Accessed Dec. 18, 2013.
- Guidelines for patients receiving radioiodine I-131 treatment. Society for Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging. http://interactive.snm.org/index.cfm?PageID=11031. Accessed Dec. 24, 2013.
- Hay ID, et al. The coming of age of ultrasound-guided percutaneous ethanol ablation of selected neck nodal metastases in well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. 2011;96:2717.
- Caprelsa (prescribing information). Wilmington, Del.: AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals; 2013. http://www.caprelsa.com. Accessed Dec. 24, 2013.
- Cometriq (prescribing information). South San Francisco, Calif.: Exelixis Inc.; 2012. http://www.cometriq.com. Accessed Dec. 24, 2013.
- Frequently asked questions about potassium iodide. U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. http://www.nrc.gov/about-nrc/emerg-preparedness/about-emerg-preparedness/potassium-iodide/ki-faq.html. Accessed Dec. 24, 2013.
- Brito JP, et al. Thyroid cancer: Zealous imaging has increased detection and treatment of low risk tumors. BMJ. 2013;347:f4706.
- Riggin EA. Decision Support System. Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. Sept. 24, 2013.
- Nippoldt TB (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. Jan. 5, 2014.
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- Nexavar (prescribing information). Whippany, N.J.: Bayer HealthCare Pharmaceuticals Inc.; 2013. http://www.nexavar-us.com. Accessed Jan. 8, 2014.
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