In-depth

Complications

Deep vein thrombosis

Symptoms

Edema

Tests and diagnosis

Electromyography

When other treatments haven't worked, ECT may be an option. Set aside preconceived notions and learn about benefits and risks.

MRI

X-ray

Aug. 27, 2016
References
  1. Ferri FF. Thoracic outlet syndrome. In: Ferri's Clinical Advisor 2016. Philadelphia, Pa.: Mosby Elsevier; 2016. https://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed May 31, 2016.
  2. Kuhn JE, et al. Thoracic outlet syndrome. Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. 2015;23:222.
  3. NINDS thoracic outlet syndrome information page. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/thoracic/thoracic.htm. Accessed May 31, 2016.
  4. Goshima K. Overview of thoracic outlet syndromes. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed May 24, 2016.
  5. Buller LT, et al. Thoracic outlet syndrome: Current concepts, imaging features, and therapeutic strategies. The American Journal of Orthopedics. 2015;44:376.
  6. Thoracic outlet syndrome. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. http://orthoinfo.aaos.org/topic.cfm?topic=a00336. Accessed May 31, 2016.
  7. Grunebach H, et al. Thoracic outlet syndrome. Vascular Medicine. 2015;20:493.
  8. Riggs EA. AllScripts EPSi. Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. May 10, 2016.