Factors that increase the risk of stuttering include:
Sep. 08, 2011
- Having relatives who stutter. Stuttering tends to run in families.
- Delayed childhood development. Children who have developmental delays or other speech problems are more likely to stutter.
- Being male. Males are much more likely to stutter than are females.
- Stress. High parental expectations or other types of pressure can worsen existing stuttering.
- Stuttering. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. http://www.asha.org/public/speech/disorders/stuttering.htm. Accessed June 21, 2011.
- Ropper AH, et al. Normal development and deviations in development of the nervous system. In: Ropper AH, et al. Adams and Victor's Principles of Neurology. 9th ed. New York, N.Y.: The McGraw-Hill Companies; 2009. http://www.accessmedicine.com/content.aspx?aID=3634622. Accessed June 21, 2011
- Kliegman RM. Dysfluency (stuttering, stammering). In: Kliegman RM, et al. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 19th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2011. http://www.mdconsult.com/books/page.do?eid=4-u1.0-B978-1-4377-0755-7..00032-4--sc0015&isbn=978-1-4377-0755-7&uniqId=259689939-3#4-u1.0-B978-1-4377-0755-7..00032-4--sc0015. Accessed June 20, 2011.
- Stuttering. National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders. http://www.nidcd.nih.gov/health/voice/stutter.htm. Accessed June 21, 2011.
- Facts on stuttering. The Stuttering Foundation. http://www.stutteringhelp.org/Default.aspx?tabid=17. Accessed June 21, 2011.
- Antipova AA, et al. Effects of altered auditory feedback (AAF) on stuttering frequency during monologue speech production. Journal of Fluency Disorders. 2008;33:274.
- Blomgren, MB. Stuttering treatment for adults: An update on contemporary approaches. Seminars in Speech and Language. 2010;31:272.
- 7 tips for talking with your child. The Stuttering Foundation. http://www.stutteringhelp.org/Default.aspx?tabid=632. Accessed June 21, 2011.
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