While the physical examination alone can often confirm a diagnosis of cervical dystonia, your doctor might suggest blood tests or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to rule out any underlying conditions causing your signs and symptoms.
Oct. 29, 2016
- Dystonias fact sheet. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/dystonias/detail_dystonias.htm. Accessed Sept. 27, 2016.
- Frontera WR. Cervical dystonia. In: Essentials of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation: Musculoskeletal Disorders, Pain, and Rehabilitation. 3rd ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2015. http://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed Sept. 27, 2016.
- Comella C. Classification and evaluation of dystonia. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Sept. 27, 2016.
- AskMayoExpert. Cervical dystonia (spasmodic torticollis). Rochester, Minn.: Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research; 2016.
- Comella C. Treatment of dystonia. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Sept. 27, 2016.