Risk factors for cervical dystonia include:
Jan. 28, 2014
- Age. While the disorder can occur in people of any age, even children, it most commonly begins between the ages of 40 and 70.
- Sex. Women are more likely to develop cervical dystonia than are men.
- Family history. If a close family member has cervical dystonia or some other type of dystonia, you are at higher risk of developing the disorder.
- Dystonias fact sheet. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/dystonias/detail_dystonias.htm. Accessed Aug. 9, 2013.
- Frontera WR, et al. Essentials of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation: Musculoskeletal Disorders, Pain, and Rehabilitation. 2nd ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2008. http://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed Aug. 9, 2013.
- Comella C. Classification and evaluation of dystonia. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Aug. 9, 2013.
- Ferri FF. Ferri's Clinical Advisor 2013: 5 Books in 1. Philadelphia, Pa.: Mosby Elsevier; 2013. https://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed Aug. 9, 2013.
- Comella C. Treatment of dystonia. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Aug. 9, 2013.