Find out what causes different types of abdominal pain.
Fatigue can signal many things. Here are some tips to help you decipher why you're wiped out and to regain your energy.
Shortness of breath can be frightening. Most of the time, a heart or lung condition is the cause.
Tests and diagnosis
A coronary angiogram uses special X-rays to examine the inside of your heart's blood vessels. Find out what to expect when you have the procedure.
MRI uses a magnetic field and radio waves to create detailed images of the organs and tissues within your body.
Apr. 09, 2013
- Bairey Merz CN, et al. Syndrome X and microvascular coronary dysfunction. Circulation. 2011;124:1477.
- What is coronary microvascular disease? National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/dci/Diseases/cmd/cmd_all.html. Accessed March 5, 2013.
- Camici PC, et al. Coronary microvascular dysfunction. New England Journal of Medicine. 2007;356:830.
- Lanza GA, et al. Primary coronary microvascular dysfunction: Clinical presentation, pathophysiology, and management. Circulation. 2010;121:2317.
- Cholesterol. Mayo Medical Laboratories. http://www.mayomedicallaboratories.com/test-catalog/Clinical+and+Interpretive/8320. Accessed March 5, 2013.
- Topcu S, et al. Metformin therapy improves coronary microvascular function in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome and insulin resistance. Clinical Endocrinology. 2006;65:75.
- Kothawade K, et al. Microvascular coronary dysfunction in women-pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management. Current Problems in Cardiology. 2011;36:291.
- Littarru GP, et al. Clinical aspects of coenzyme Q10: An update. Nutrition. 2010;26:250.
- Gao L, et al. Effects of coenzyme Q10 on vascular endothelial function in humans: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Atherosclerosis. 2012;221:311.
- Teede HJ, et al. Endothelial function and insulin resistance in polycystic ovary syndrome: the effects of medical therapy. Fertility and Sterility. 2010; 93:184.
- EndoPat overview. Endopat.com. http://endopat.com/Home_Page.html. Accessed March 19, 2013.
- Grogan M (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. March 18, 2013.
You Are ... The Campaign for Mayo Clinic
Mayo Clinic is a not-for-profit organization. Make a difference today.