Sleepless nights? Insomnia includes difficulty going to sleep, staying asleep or going back to sleep after you awaken. Insomnia may be temporary or chronic.
Most headaches aren't caused by a serious illness, but some could be a sign of a life-threatening condition.
Shortness of breath can be frightening. Most of the time, a heart or lung condition is the cause.
Tests and diagnosis
Treatments and drugs
A tracheostomy, a surgically created hole in the windpipe, enables a person to breathe when normal breathing is obstructed.
Aug. 25, 2015
- Longo DL, et al., eds. Sleep apnea. In: Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine. 19th ed. New York, N.Y.: The McGraw-Hill Companies; 2015. http://accessmedicine.com. Accessed May 20, 2015.
- Ferri FF. Sleep apnea, obstructive. In: Ferri's Clinical Advisor 2015: 5 Books in 1. Philadelphia, Pa.: Mosby Elsevier; 2015. https://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed May 20, 2015.
- What is sleep apnea? National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/sleepapnea/. Accessed May 22, 2015.
- Selim BJ, et al. Central sleep apnea — The complex sleep apnea syndrome. Sleep Medicine Clinic. 2014;9:37.
- Bonow RO, et al. Sleep apnea and cardiovascular disease. In: Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine. 10th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2015. http://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed May 20, 2015.
- Strohl KP. Overview of obstructive sleep apnea in adults. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed May 19, 2015.
- Kryger MH, et al. Sleep breathing disorders. In: Principles and Practice of Sleep Medicine. 5th ed. St. Louis, Mo.: Elsevier Saunders; 2011. http://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed May 20, 2015.
- Adult obstructive sleep apnoea. The Lancet. 2014;383:736.
- Schiza SE, et al. Expiratory positive airway pressure (EPAP) nasal device therapy: A welcome addition to obstructive sleep apnea syndrome therapy. Sleep and Breathing. In press.
- Kryger MH. Management of obstructive sleep apnea in adults. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed May 22, 2015.
- Selim BJ (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. May 26, 2015.