Sjogren's syndrome can be difficult to diagnose because the signs and symptoms vary from person to person and can be similar to those caused by other diseases. Side effects of a number of medications also mimic some signs and symptoms of Sjogren's syndrome.
A variety of tests can help rule out other conditions and help pinpoint a diagnosis of Sjogren's syndrome.
Your doctor may order blood tests to check for:
- Levels of different types of blood cells
- Presence of antibodies common in Sjogren's syndrome
- Evidence of inflammatory conditions
- Indications of problems with your liver and kidneys
Your doctor can measure the dryness of your eyes with a test called a Schirmer tear test. In this test, a small piece of filter paper is placed under your lower eyelid to measure your tear production.
A doctor specializing in the treatment of eye disorders (ophthalmologist) may also examine the surface of your eyes with a magnifying device called a slit lamp. He or she may place drops in your eye that make any damage to your cornea easier to see.
Certain imaging tests can check the function of your salivary glands.
- Sialogram. A special X-ray called a sialogram can detect dye that's injected into the salivary glands located in front of your ears. This procedure shows how much saliva flows into your mouth.
- Salivary scintigraphy. This nuclear medicine test involves the intravenous injection of a radioactive isotope, which is tracked over the course of an hour to see how quickly it arrives in all your salivary glands.
Your doctor may also want to do a lip biopsy to detect the presence of clusters of inflammatory cells, which can indicate Sjogren's syndrome. For this test, a small sliver of tissue is removed from salivary glands located in your lip and examined under a microscope.
July 08, 2014
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- Sjogren's syndrome. American College of Rheumatology. http://www.rheumatology.org/Practice/Clinical/Patients/Diseases_And_Conditions/Sj%C3%B6gren_s_Syndrome. Accessed April 15, 2014.
- Fox R, et al. Classification and diagnosis of Sjogren's syndrome. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed April 15, 2014.