Although many problems can lead to low pituitary function, Sheehan's syndrome is caused by severe blood loss or extremely low blood pressure during or after childbirth. These factors can be particularly damaging to the pituitary gland, destroying hormone-producing tissue so that the gland can't function normally.
Pituitary hormones regulate the rest of your endocrine system, signaling other glands to increase or decrease production of the hormones that control metabolism, fertility, blood pressure, breast milk production and many other vital processes. A lack of any of these hormones can cause problems throughout your body — although signs and symptoms may develop so gradually that they escape notice.
Hormones that your pituitary secretes include:
Jan. 02, 2014
- Growth hormone (GH). This hormone controls bone and tissue growth and maintains the right balance of muscle and fat tissue.
- Anti-diuretic hormone (ADH). By regulating urine production, this hormone manages water balance in your body. A deficiency of ADH results in excess urination and thirst, a condition called diabetes insipidus.
- Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). This hormone stimulates your thyroid gland to produce key hormones that regulate your metabolism. Shortage of TSH results in an underactive thyroid gland (hypothyroidism).
- Luteinizing hormone (LH). In men, LH regulates testosterone production. In women, it fosters production of estrogen.
- Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). Working in tandem with LH, FSH helps stimulate sperm production in men and egg development and ovulation in women.
- Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). This hormone stimulates your adrenal glands to produce cortisol and other hormones. Cortisol helps your body deal with stress and influences many body functions, including blood pressure, heart function and your immune system. A low level of adrenal hormones caused by pituitary damage is called secondary adrenal insufficiency.
- Prolactin. This hormone regulates the development of female breasts, as well as the production of breast milk.
- DeCherney AH, et al. Current Diagnosis & Treatment Obstetrics & Gynecology. 11th ed. New York, N.Y.: The McGraw-Hill Companies; 2013. http://www.accessmedicine.com/resourceTOC.aspx?resourceID=788. Accessed Oct. 1, 2013.
- Kristjansdottir HL, et al. Sheehan's syndrome in modern times: A nationwide retrospective study in Iceland. European Journal of Endocrinology. 2011;164:348.
- Jain D. A ray of hope for a woman with Sheehan's syndrome. BMJ Case Reports. 2013;Feb.4:1.
- Tessnow AH, et al. The changing face of Sheehan's syndrome. The American Journal of the Medical Sciences. 2010;340:402.
- Generalized hypopituitarism. The Merck Manuals: The Merck Manual for Health Care Professionals. http://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/endocrine_and_metabolic_disorders/pituitary_disorders/generalized_hypopituitarism.html. Accessed Oct. 1, 2013.
- Nieman LK. Clinical manifestations of adrenal insufficiency in adults. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Oct. 1, 2013.
- Pituitary disorders overview. The Hormone Foundation. http://www.hormone.org/Pituitary/overview.cfm . Accessed Oct. 1, 2013.
- Lockwood CJ. Overview of postpartum hemorrhage. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Oct. 1, 2013.
- Snyder PJ. Treatment of hypopituitarism. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Oct. 1, 2013.
- Nippoldt TB (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. Oct.14, 2013.
- Warren MP. Appropriate use of estrogen replacement therapy in adolescents and young adults with Turner syndrome and hypopituitarism in light of the Women's Health Initiative. Growth Hormone & IGF Research. 2006;16:S98.
- Birth control methods fact sheet. WomensHealth.gov. http://www.womenshealth.gov/publications/our-publications/fact-sheet/birth-control-methods.cfm#h. Accessed Oct. 2, 2013.
- Growth hormone: Use and abuse. The Hormone Foundation. http://www.hormone.org/search-page?q=gorwth+hormone. Accessed Oct. 2, 2013.
You Are ... The Campaign for Mayo Clinic
Mayo Clinic is a not-for-profit organization. Make a difference today.