Anyone who is sexually active risks exposure to a sexually transmitted infection to some degree. Factors that may increase that risk include:
Having unprotected sex. Vaginal or anal penetration by an infected partner who is not wearing a latex condom significantly increases the risk of getting an STI. Improper or inconsistent use of condoms can also increase your risk.
Oral sex is less risky but may still transmit infection without a latex condom or dental dam. Dental dams — thin, square pieces of rubber made with latex or silicone — prevent skin-to-skin contact.
- Having sexual contact with multiple partners. The more people you have sexual contact with, the greater your overall exposure risks. This is true for concurrent partners as well as monogamous consecutive relationships.
- Having a history of STIs. Being infected with one STI makes it much easier for another STI to take hold. If you're infected with herpes, syphilis, gonorrhea or chlamydia and you have unprotected sex with an HIV-positive partner, you're more likely to contract HIV. Also, it's possible to be reinfected by the same infected partner if he or she isn't also treated.
- Anyone forced to have sexual intercourse or sexual activity. Dealing with rape or assault can be difficult, but it is important to be seen as soon as possible. Screening, treatment and emotional support can be offered.
- Abusing alcohol or using recreational drugs. Substance abuse can inhibit your judgment, making you more willing to participate in risky behaviors.
- Injecting drugs. Needle sharing spreads many serious infections, including HIV, hepatitis B and hepatitis C. If you acquire HIV by injecting drugs, you can transmit it sexually.
- Being an adolescent female. In adolescent girls, the immature cervix is made up of constantly changing cells. These unstable cells make the adolescent female cervix more vulnerable to certain sexually transmitted organisms.
- Men who request prescriptions for drugs to treat erectile dysfunction. Men who ask their doctors for prescriptions for certain drugs — such as sildenafil (Viagra), tadalafil (Cialis) and vardenafil (Levitra) — have higher rates of STIs. Be sure you are up to date on safe sex practices if you ask your doctor for one of these medications.
Transmission from mother to infant
Certain STIs — such as gonorrhea, chlamydia, HIV and syphilis — can be passed from an infected mother to her child during pregnancy or delivery. STIs in infants can cause serious problems and may be fatal. All pregnant women should be screened for these infections and treated.
Aug. 19, 2014
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- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, et al. Sexually Transmitted Diseases Treatment Guidelines, 2010. MMWR. 2010;59:1. http://www.cdc.gov/sTD/treatment/2010/default.htm. Accessed June 21, 2014.
- Partner services FAQs. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. http://www.cdc.gov/nchhstp/partners/faq-public.html. Accessed June 23, 2014.
- Preexposure prophylaxis for the prevention of HIV infection in the United States — 2014 clinical practice guideline. Atlanta, Ga. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/pdf/guidelines/PrEPguidelines2014.pdf?elq=0a349f52dfa74f48ae554056bc0e027e&elqCampaignId=8040. Accessed May 16, 2014.
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