There are several ways to avoid or reduce your risk of sexually transmitted infections.
Aug. 19, 2014
- Abstain. The most effective way to avoid STIs is to abstain from sex.
- Stay with 1 uninfected partner. Another reliable way of avoiding STIs is to stay in a long-term mutually monogamous relationship with a partner who isn't infected.
- Wait and verify. Avoid vaginal and anal intercourse with new partners until you have both been tested for STIs. Oral sex is less risky, but use a latex condom or dental dam — a thin, square piece of rubber made with latex or silicone — to prevent direct contact between the oral and genital mucous membranes. Keep in mind that no good screening test exists for genital herpes for either sex, and human papillomavirus (HPV) screening isn't available for men.
- Get vaccinated. Getting vaccinated early, before sexual exposure, is also effective in preventing certain types of STIs. Vaccines are available to prevent human papillomavirus (HPV), hepatitis A and hepatitis B. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends the HPV vaccine for girls and boys ages 11 and 12. If not fully vaccinated at ages 11 and 12, the CDC recommends that girls and women through age 26 and boys and men through age 26 receive the vaccine. The hepatitis B vaccine is usually given to newborns, and the hepatitis A vaccine is recommended for 1-year-olds. Both vaccines are recommended for people who aren't already immune to these diseases and for those who are at increased risk of infection, such as men who have sex with men and IV drug users.
- Use condoms and dental dams consistently and correctly. Use a new latex condom or dental dam for each sex act, whether oral, vaginal or anal. Never use an oil-based lubricant, such as petroleum jelly, with a latex condom or dental dam. Condoms made from natural membranes are not recommended because they're not as effective at preventing STIs. Keep in mind that while condoms reduce your risk of exposure to most STIs, they provide a lesser degree of protection for STIs involving exposed genital sores, such as human papillomavirus (HPV) or herpes. Also, nonbarrier forms of contraception, such as oral contraceptives or intrauterine devices, don't protect against STIs.
- Don't drink alcohol excessively or use drugs. If you're under the influence, you're more likely to take sexual risks.
- Communicate. Before any serious sexual contact, communicate with your partner about practicing safer sex. Reach an explicit agreement about what activities will and won't be OK.
- Teach your child. Becoming sexually active at a young age tends to increase a person's number of overall partners and, as a result, his or her risk of STIs. Biologically, young girls are more susceptible to infection. While you can't control your teen or preteen's actions, you can help your child understand the risks of sexual activity and that it's OK to wait to have sex.
- Consider male circumcision. There's evidence that male circumcision can help reduce a man's risk of acquiring HIV from an infected woman (heterosexual transmission) by as much as 60 percent. Male circumcision may also help prevent transmission of genital HPV and genital herpes.
Consider the drug Truvada. In July 2012, the Food and Drug Administration approved the use of the combination drug emtricitabine-tenofovir (Truvada) to reduce the risk of sexually transmitted HIV infection in those who are at high risk. Truvada is also used as an HIV treatment along with other medications.
When used to help prevent HIV infection, Truvada is only appropriate if your doctor is certain you don't already have HIV infection. Your doctor should also test for hepatitis B infection. If you don't have hepatitis B, your doctor may recommend the hepatitis B vaccine if you haven't had it yet. If you have hepatitis B, your doctor should test your kidney function before prescribing Truvada.
Truvada must be taken daily, exactly as prescribed, and you'll need follow-up HIV and kidney function testing every few months. Truvada should only be used along with other prevention strategies such as condom use every time you have sex.
- Sexually transmitted infections: Overview. Womenshealth.gov. http://womenshealth.gov/publications/our-publications/fact-sheet/sexually-transmitted-infections.html. Accessed June 15, 2014.
- Overview of sexually transmitted diseases. The Merck Manual for Health Care Professionals. http://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/infectious_diseases/sexually_transmitted_diseases_std/overview_of_sexually_transmitted_diseases.html. Accessed June 23, 2014.
- Sexually transmitted infections (STIs). World Health Organization. http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs110/en/. Accessed June 23, 2014.
- Longo DL, et al. Harrison's Online. 18th ed. New York, N.Y.: The McGraw-Hill Companies; 2012. http://www.accessmedicine.com/resourceTOC.aspx?resourceID=4. Accessed June 21, 2014.
- Markle W, et al. Sexually transmitted diseases. Primary Care: Clinics Office Practice. 2013;40:557.
- Hunter P, et al. Screening and prevention of sexually transmitted infections. Primary Care: Clinics Office Practice. 2014;41:215.
- New guidelines for cervical cancer screening: Patient education fact sheet. The American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. http://www.acog.org/Womens-Health/Cervical-Cancer. Accessed June 21, 2014.
- Swygard H, et al. Screening for sexually transmitted infections. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed June 21, 2014.
- Hay WW, et al. Current Diagnosis & Treatment: Pediatrics. 21st ed. New York, N.Y.: The McGraw-Hill Companies; 2012. http://accessmedicine.mhmedical.com/book.aspx?bookid=497. Accessed June 21, 2014.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, et al. Sexually Transmitted Diseases Treatment Guidelines, 2010. MMWR. 2010;59:1. http://www.cdc.gov/sTD/treatment/2010/default.htm. Accessed June 21, 2014.
- Partner services FAQs. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. http://www.cdc.gov/nchhstp/partners/faq-public.html. Accessed June 23, 2014.
- Preexposure prophylaxis for the prevention of HIV infection in the United States — 2014 clinical practice guideline. Atlanta, Ga. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/pdf/guidelines/PrEPguidelines2014.pdf?elq=0a349f52dfa74f48ae554056bc0e027e&elqCampaignId=8040. Accessed May 16, 2014.