Factors that increase the risk of a scrotal mass vary because of the various causes of scrotal abnormalities. Significant risk factors include:
Undescended or retractile testicle
An undescended testicle doesn't leave the abdomen and enter the scrotum during fetal development or early infancy. A retractile testicle descends into the scrotum, but retreats to the abdomen. Either might increase the risk of:
- Inguinal hernia
- Testicular torsion
- Testicular cancer
Abnormalities present at birth
Abnormalities of the testicles, penis or kidneys present at birth (congenital) might increase the risk of a scrotal mass and testicular cancer later in life.
History of testicular cancer
If you have had cancer in one testicle, you're at increased risk of cancer affecting the other testicle. Having a father or brother who has had testicular cancer also increases your risk.
June 19, 2014
- Eyre RC. Evaluation of nonacute scrotal pathology in adult men. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed March 20, 2014.
- The Merck Manuals: The Merck Manual for Health Care Professionals. http://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/genitourinary_disorders/symptoms_of_genitourinary_disorders/painless_scrotal_mass.html. Accessed March 20, 2014.
- Brenner JS, et al. Causes of scrotal pain in children and adolescents. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed March 20, 2014.
- Eyre RC. Evaluation of acute scrotum in adults. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed March 20, 2014.
- What are the risk factors for testicular cancer? American Cancer Society. http://www.cancer.org/cancer/testicularcancer/detailedguide/testicular-cancer-risk-factors. Accessed March 20, 2014.
- Testicular self-exam. American Cancer Society. http://www.cancer.org/cancer/testicularcancer/moreinformation/doihavetesticularcancer/do-i-have-testicular-cancer-self-exam. Accessed March 20, 2014.
- How is testicular cancer treated? American Cancer Society. http://www.cancer.org/cancer/testicularcancer/detailedguide/testicular-cancer-treating-general-treatment-info. Accessed March 20, 2014.