Marfan syndrome, a connective tissue disorder, can affect almost any part of your body, including your heart, eyes and ligaments.
Syringomyelia is the development of a fluid-filled cyst within your spinal cord. It can cause a variety of neurological symptoms, including pain, weakness and stiffness.
Tests and diagnosis
MRI uses a magnetic field and radio waves to create detailed images of the organs and tissues within your body.
Treatments and drugs
Having a lot of back pain doesn't necessarily mean you need surgery. Research your options before agreeing to go under the knife.
Spinal fusion surgery can be used to improve spinal stability, correct deformities and, in some cases, reduce pain.
Feb. 03, 2012
- Scoliosis. National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases. http://www.niams.nih.gov/Health_Info/Scoliosis/default.asp. Accessed Dec. 19, 2011.
- Spiegel DA, et al. The spine. In: Kliegman RM, et al. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 19th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2011. http://www.mdconsult.com/das/book/body/208746819-6/0/1608/0.html. Accessed Dec. 19, 2011.
- Scheri SA. Clinical features, evaluation and diagnosis of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. http://www.uptodate.com/home/index.html. Accessed Dec. 19, 2011.
- Thomas MA, et al. Scoliosis and kyphosis. In: Frontera WR, et al. Essentials of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation: Musculoskeletal Disorders, Pain, and Rehabilitation. 2nd ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2008. http://www.mdconsult.com/das/book/body/208746819-6/0/1678/0.html. Accessed Dec. 19, 2011.
- Mercier LR. Scoliosis. In: Ferri FF. Ferri's Clinical Advisor 2012: 5 Books in 1. Philadelphia, Pa.: Mosby Elsevier; 2012. http://www.mdconsult.com/books/about.do?about=true&eid=4-u1.0-B978-0-323-05611-3..C2009-0-38601-8--TOP&isbn=978-0-323-05611-3&uniqId=291436269-101. Accessed Dec. 19, 2011.
- Scherl SA. Treatment and prognosis of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. http://www.uptodate.com/home/index.html. Accessed Dec. 19, 2011.
- Neurological diagnostic tests and procedures. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/misc/diagnostic_tests.htm. Accessed Dec. 19, 2011.
- General nuclear medicine. American College of Radiology. http://www.radiologyinfo.org/en/info.cfm?PG=gennuclear. Accessed Dec. 19, 2011.
- AskMayoExpert. For what spine conditions are bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) used at Mayo Clinic? Rochester, Minn.: Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research; 2010.