Although the precise cause of schizophrenia isn't known, certain factors seem to increase the risk of developing or triggering schizophrenia, including:
Jan. 24, 2014
- Having a family history of schizophrenia
- Exposure to viruses, toxins or malnutrition while in the womb, particularly in the first and second trimesters
- Increased immune system activation, such as from inflammation or autoimmune diseases
- Older age of the father
- Taking mind-altering (psychoactive or psychotropic) drugs during teen years and young adulthood
- Schizophrenia spectrum and other psychotic disorders. In: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders DSM-5. 5th ed. Arlington, Va.: American Psychiatric Association; 2013. http://www.psychiatryonline.org. Accessed July 12, 2013.
- Hales RE, et al. The American Psychiatric Publishing Textbook of Psychiatry. 5th ed. Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Publishing; 2008. http://www.psychiatryonline.com/resourceToc.aspx?resourceID=5. Accessed May 8, 2013.
- Schizophrenia. National Institute of Mental Health. http://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/publications/schizophrenia/complete-index.shtml. Accessed May 8, 2013.
- Fischer BA, et al. Schizophrenia: Clinical manifestations, course, assessment, and diagnosis. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed May 8, 2013.
- Fischer BA, et al. Schizophrenia: Epidemiology and pathogenesis. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed May 8, 2013.
- Stroup TS, et al. Pharmacotherapy for schizophrenia: Acute and maintenance phase treatment. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed May 8, 2013.
- Mental illness and the family: Recognizing warning signs and how to cope. Mental Health America. http://www.nmha.org/go/information/get-info/mi-and-the-family/recognizing-warning-signs-and-how-to-cope. Accessed May 16, 2013.
- Highlights of changes from DSM-IV-TR to DSM-5. American Psychiatric Association. http://www.dsm5.org/Pages/Default.aspx. Accessed May 17, 2013.
- Schak KM (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. Aug. 13, 2013.
- Hall-Flavin DK (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. Aug. 18, 2013.