People with schizoid personality disorder are loners. If you have this condition, you're likely to:
- Prefer being alone and usually choose solitary activities
- Prize independence and have few close friendships
- Feel confused about how to respond to normal social cues and generally have little to say
- Feel little if any desire for sexual relationships
- Feel unable to experience pleasure
- Come off as dull, indifferent or emotionally cold
- Feel unmotivated and tend to underperform at school or work
Personality disorders begin in early adulthood, at the latest. Some of these tendencies may have first become noticeable during your childhood. They also occur across a range of social and personal situations. They may either cause you to have trouble functioning well in a job, socially or in other areas of life. However, you may do reasonably well in your job if you mostly work alone.
If you have schizoid personality disorder, you may not know how to form friendships, or you may feel too anxious around other people to try, so you simply give up and turn inward.
Schizoid personality disorder is considered part of the schizophrenic spectrum of disorders, which includes schizotypal personality disorder and schizophrenia. These conditions all have similar symptoms, such as a severely limited ability to make social connections along with a lack of emotional expression.
However, unlike schizotypal personality disorder and schizophrenia, people with schizoid personality disorder:
- Are in touch with reality — they're unlikely to experience paranoia or hallucinations
- Make sense when they speak, although the tone may not be animated — in contrast to conversational patterns of someone with schizotypal personality disorder or schizophrenia, which are typically strange and hard to follow
Classes of personality disorders
Another way of understanding personality disorders has been to group them into classes. Schizoid personality disorder, along with schizotypal and paranoid personality disorders, are grouped together as Class A personality disorders. Class A disorders refer to odd or eccentric behaviors. They differ from Class B — dramatic and emotional behaviors — and Class C — anxious and fearful behaviors.
When to see a doctor
Treatment for schizoid personality disorder is usually sought by people who are bothered by an associated problem, such as depression. In cases where the isolation is bothersome or the other symptoms are distressing, psychotherapy may be helpful.
If someone close to you has urged you to seek help for symptoms common to schizoid personality disorder, make an appointment, starting with a primary care physician or mental health professional.
If you suspect a loved one may have schizoid personality disorder, gently suggest that the person seek medical attention. It might help to offer to go with him or her to the first appointment.
Jul. 27, 2013
- Hales RE, et al. The American Psychiatric Publishing Textbook of Psychiatry. 5th ed. Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Publishing; 2008. http://www.psychiatryonline.com/resourceToc.aspx?resourceID=5. Accessed April 29, 2013.
- Personality disorders. In: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders DSM-5. 5th ed. Arlington, Va.: American Psychiatric Association; 2013. http://dsm.psychiatryonline.org/content.aspx?bookid=556§ionid=41101784#10344200. Accessed June 18, 2013.
- Ebert MH, et al. Current Diagnosis & Treatment: Psychiatry. 2nd ed. New York, N.Y.: The McGraw-Hill Companies; 2008. http://www.accessmedicine.com/resourceTOC.aspx?resourceID=10. Accessed April 29, 2013.
- Skodol A, et al. Approaches to the therapeutic relationship in patients with personality disorders. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed April 27, 2013.
- Stern TA, et al. Massachusetts General Hospital Comprehensive Clinical Psychiatry. Philadelphia, Pa.: Mosby Elsevier; 2008. http://www.mdconsult.com/books/page.do?eid=4-u1.0-B978-0-323-04743-2..50041-X--cesec5&isbn=978-0-323-04743-2&sid=1451253590&uniqId=414361381-3#4-u1.0-B978-0-323-04743-2..50041-X--cesec8. Accessed April 27, 2013.
- Gabbard GO. Gabbard's Treatments of Psychiatric Disorders. 4th ed. Arlington, Va.: American Psychiatric Publishing; 2007. http://psychiatryonline.org/content.aspx?bookid=4§ionid=1341864. Accessed April 29, 2013.
- Triebwasser J, et al. Schizoid personality disorder. Journal of Personality Disorders. 2012;26:919.
- Feldman MD, et al. Behavioral Medicine: A Guide for Clinical Practice. 3rd ed. New York, N.Y.: The McGraw-Hill Companies; 2008. http://www.accessmedicine.com/content.aspx?aid=6441825. Accessed April 29, 2013.
- Palmer BA (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. June 17, 2013.