Tests and diagnosis
A CT scan is an imaging test that uses X-rays to produce detailed images of the inside of your body.
MRI uses a magnetic field and radio waves to create detailed images of the organs and tissues within your body.
Ultrasound imaging uses high-frequency sound waves to create images of structures in your body.
X-rays are a form of radiation that can make images of your bones and internal organs.
Treatments and drugs
Spinal fusion surgery can be used to improve spinal stability, correct deformities and, in some cases, reduce pain.
Jan. 09, 2013
- Frontera WR, et al. Essentials of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation: Musculoskeletal Disorders, Pain, and Rehabilitation. 2nd ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2008. http://www.mdconsult.com/das/book/body/208746819-6/0/1678/0.html. Accessed Nov. 20, 2012.
- Vora AJ, et al. Functional anatomy and pathophysiology of axial low back pain: Disc, posterior elements, sacroiliac joint and associated pain generators. Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation Clinics of North America. 2010;21:679.
- Anderson BC. Evaluation of the adult with hip pain. http://www.uptodate.com/index. Accessed Nov. 20, 2012.
- Canale ST, et al. Campbell's Operative Orthopaedics. 11th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Mosby Elsevier; 2008. http://www.mdconsult.com/das/book/body/208746819-4/0/1584/0.html. Accessed Nov. 20, 2012.
- Bope ET, et al. Conn's Current Therapy. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2012. http://www.mdconsult.com/books/about.do?eid=4-u1.0-B978-1-4377-0986-5..C2009-0-38984-9--TOP&isbn=978-1-4377-0986-5&about=true&uniqId=236797353-5. Accessed Nov. 20, 2012.
- Yu DT. Clinical manifestations of ankylosing spondylitis in adults. http://www.uptodate.com/index. Accessed Nov. 20, 2012.
- Imboden JB, et al. Current Rheumatology Diagnosis & Treatment. 2nd ed. New York, N.Y.: The McGraw-Hill Companies; 2007. http://www.accessmedicine.com/resourceTOC.aspx?resourceID=38. Accessed Nov. 21, 2012.
- Wu DT. Assessment and treatment of ankylosing spondylitis in adults. http://www.uptodate.com/index. Accessed Nov. 21, 2012.
You Are ... The Campaign for Mayo Clinic
Mayo Clinic is a not-for-profit organization. Make a difference today.