Treatment for a ruptured spleen will depend on the severity of your condition. Some people with ruptured spleens require immediate surgery. Others may heal with rest and time.
Hospitalization while the spleen heals
Many small and many moderate-sized injuries to the spleen can heal without surgery. You're likely to stay in the hospital while doctors observe your condition and provide nonsurgical care, such as blood transfusions, if necessary.
Your doctor may recommend periodic follow-up CT scans to check whether your spleen has healed or to determine whether you need surgery.
Surgery to repair or remove the spleen
Surgery for a ruptured spleen can include:
- Repairing the spleen. Your surgeon may be able to repair the rupture in your spleen with stitches or other techniques.
- Removing the spleen (splenectomy). With this procedure, your surgeon removes the injured spleen. Complications related to living without a spleen include an increased risk of serious infections, such as sepsis. Risk of sepsis is higher in children and young adults. Your doctor may recommend ways to reduce the risk of infection, such as vaccinations against pneumonia and influenza.
- Removing part of the spleen. If your spleen is ruptured in a way that makes it possible to remove only a portion of it, your surgeon may perform a partial splenectomy. This method helps to avoid the increased risk of infection that results from removing the entire spleen.
These procedures are usually done through several small incisions in your abdomen (laparoscopic surgery). Special surgical tools and a tiny camera with a light are inserted through the incisions. The camera sends images to a monitor, which the surgeon watches in order to guide the surgical tools. In certain situations, the surgeon may use a large incision to access the spleen.
Spleen surgery is generally safe, but any surgery has risks, such as bleeding, blood clots, infection and pneumonia.
April 08, 2016
- AskMayoExpert. Splenectomy. Rochester, Minn.: Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research; 2015.
- AskMayoExpert. Splenic injury. Rochester, Minn.: Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research; 2015.
- Yeo CJ, et al., eds. Management of splenic trauma in adults. In: Shackelford's surgery of the alimentary tract. 7th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Elsevier Saunders; 2013.
- Brunicardi FC, et al., eds. Spleen. In: Schwartz's Principles of Surgery. 10th ed. New York, N.Y.: McGraw-Hill Education; 2015. http://www.accessmedicine.com. Accessed Feb. 5, 2016.
- Taner T, et al. Splenectomy for massive splenomegaly: Long-term results and risks for mortality. Annals of Surgery. 2013;258:1034.
- Bartlett A, et al. Splenic rupture in infectious mononucleosis: A systematic review of published case reports. Injury. In press. Accessed Feb. 5, 2016.
- Khasawneh MA, et al. Post-splenectomy sepsis in children: A 48-year population-based study. Journal of the American College of Surgeons. 2015;221:S106.
- Polites SF, et al. Benchmarks for splenectomy in pediatric trauma: How are we doing? Journal of Pediatric Surgery. 2015;50:399.
- Barbara Woodward Lips Patient Education Centers. Splenectomy: Spleen removal. Rochester, Minn.: Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research; 2014.
- Goldman L, et al., eds. Approach to the patient with lymphadenopathy and splenomegaly. In: Goldman-Cecil Medicine. 25th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2016. http://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed Feb. 5, 2016.
- Marx JA, et al., eds. Abdominal trauma. In: Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice. 8th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2014. http://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed Feb. 9, 2016.
- Rubin LG, et al. Care of the asplenic patient. New England Journal of Medicine. 2014;371:349.
- Edgren G, et al. Splenectomy and the risk of sepsis: A population-based cohort study. Annals of Surgery. 2014;260:1081.