Factors that may increase the risk of rheumatic fever include:
Feb. 18, 2014
- Family history. Some people may carry a gene or genes that make them more likely to develop rheumatic fever.
- Type of strep bacteria. Certain strains of strep bacteria are more likely to contribute to rheumatic fever than are other strains.
- Environmental factors. A greater risk of rheumatic fever is associated with overcrowding, poor sanitation and other conditions that may easily result in the rapid transmission or multiple exposures to strep bacteria.
- Bonow RO, et al. Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine. 9th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2012. http://www.mdconsult.com/books/about.do?eid=4-u1.0-B978-1-4377-0398-6..C2009-0-59734-6--TOP&isbn=978-1-4377-0398-6&about=true&uniqId=236798031-10. Accessed Aug. 12, 2013.
- Longo DL, et al. Harrison's Online. 18th ed. New York, N.Y.: The McGraw-Hill Companies; 2012. http://www.accessmedicine.com/resourceTOC.aspx?resourceID=4. Accessed Aug. 12, 2013.
- Rheumatic fever. The Merck Manuals: The Merck Manual for Health Care Professionals. http://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/pediatrics/rheumatic_fever/rheumatic_fever.html. Accessed Aug. 12, 2013.
- Marijon E, et al. Rheumatic heart disease. The Lancet. 2012;379:953.
- Goldman L, et al. Cecil Medicine. 24th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2012. http://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed Aug. 12, 2013.
- Chow AW, et al. Evaluation of acute pharyngitis in adults. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Aug. 12, 2013.
- Gibofsky A, et al. Epidemiology and pathogenesis of acute rheumatic fever. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Aug. 12, 2013.
- Schmitt BD. Pediatric Telephone Protocols. 13th ed. Elk Grove Village, Ill.: American Academy of Pediatrics; 2011:1.
- Mankad R (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. Oct. 4, 2013.