Sometimes, treating an underlying condition, such as iron deficiency or peripheral neuropathy, greatly relieves symptoms of restless legs syndrome. Correcting the iron deficiency may involve taking iron supplements. However, take iron supplements only with medical supervision and after your doctor has checked your blood-iron level.
If you have RLS without any associated condition, treatment focuses on lifestyle changes, and, if those aren't effective, medications.
Several prescription medications, most of which were developed to treat other diseases, are available to reduce the restlessness in your legs. These include:
Medications for Parkinson's disease. These medications reduce the amount of motion in your legs by affecting the level of the chemical messenger dopamine in your brain. Two drugs, ropinirole (Requip) and pramipexole (Mirapex), are approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of moderate to severe RLS.
Another drug used to treat Parkinson's disease, rotigotine (Neupro), may also be used to treat RLS. This drug is applied as a patch to the skin.
Doctors commonly also use other Parkinson's drugs to treat restless legs syndrome, such as a combination of carbidopa and levodopa (Sinemet). People with RLS are at no greater risk of developing Parkinson's disease than are those without RLS. Short-term side effects of Parkinson's medications are usually mild and include nausea, lightheadedness and fatigue.
- Medications for epilepsy. Certain epilepsy medications, such as gabapentin (Neurontin) and gabapentin enacarbil (Horizant), may work for some people with RLS.
- Opioids. Narcotic medications can relieve mild to severe symptoms, but they may be addicting if used in high doses. Some examples of these medications include codeine, oxycodone (Oxycontin, Roxicodone), the combination medicine oxycodone and acetaminophen (Percocet, Roxicet), and the combination medicine hydrocodone and acetaminophen (Lortab, Norco,Vicodin).
- Muscle relaxants and sleep medications. This class of medications, known as benzodiazepines, helps you sleep better at night. But these medications don't eliminate the leg sensations, and they may cause daytime drowsiness. Commonly used sedatives for RLS include clonazepam (Klonopin), triazolam (Halcion), eszopiclone (Lunesta), ramelteon (Rozerem), temazepam (Restoril), zaleplon (Sonata) and zolpidem (Ambien).
It may take several trials for you and your doctor to find the right medication and dosage for you. A combination of medications may work best.
Caution about medications
One thing to remember with drugs to treat RLS is that sometimes a medication that has worked for you for a while becomes ineffective. Or you notice your symptoms returning earlier in the day. For example, if you've been taking your medication at 8 p.m., your symptoms of RLS may start at 6 p.m. This is called augmentation. Your doctor may substitute another medication to combat the problem.
Most of the drugs prescribed to treat RLS aren't recommended for pregnant women. Instead, your doctor may recommend self-care techniques to relieve symptoms. However, if the sensations are particularly bothersome during your last trimester, your doctor may approve the use of pain relievers.
Some medications may worsen symptoms of RLS. These include most antidepressants and some anti-nausea drugs. Your doctor may recommend that you avoid these medications if possible. However, should you need to take these medications, restless legs can still be controlled by adding drugs that manage the condition.
Jan. 19, 2012
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- Restless legs syndrome: Causes, diagnosis and treatment. Restless Legs Syndrome Foundation. http://www.rls.org/Document.Doc?&id=428. Accessed Sept. 27, 2011.
- About RLS: Frequently asked questions. Restless Legs Syndrome Foundation. http://www.rls.org/Page.aspx?pid=543#7. Accessed Sept. 27, 2011.
- Salas RE, et al. Update in restless legs syndrome. Current Opinion in Neurology. 2010;23:401.
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- Trenkwalder C, et al. Restless legs syndrome: Pathophysiology, clinical presentation and management. Nature Reviews/Neurology. 2010;6:337.
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- Pregnancy and RLS. Restless Legs Syndrome Foundation. www.rls.org/Document.Doc?id=183. Accessed Oct. 4, 2011.
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