To feel safe and develop trust, infants and young children need a stable, caring environment. Their basic emotional and physical needs must be consistently met. For instance, when a baby cries, his or her need for a meal or a diaper change must be met with a shared emotional exchange that may include eye contact, smiling and caressing.

A child whose needs are ignored or met with a lack of emotional response from caregivers does not come to expect care or comfort or form a stable attachment to caregivers.

Most children are naturally resilient, and even those who've been neglected, lived in orphanages or had multiple caregivers can develop healthy relationships. It's not clear why some babies and children develop reactive attachment disorder and others don't.

Various theories about reactive attachment disorder and its causes exist, and more research is needed to develop a better understanding and improve diagnosis and treatment options.

Jul. 10, 2014

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