Risk factors for primary Raynaud's include:
- Sex. Primary Raynaud's affects women more than men.
- Age. Although anyone can develop the condition, primary Raynaud's often begins between the ages of 15 and 30.
- Climate. The disorder is also more common in people who live in colder climates.
- Family history. A family history appears to increase your risk of primary Raynaud's. About one-third of people with primary Raynaud's have a first-degree relative — a parent, sibling or child — with the disorder.
Risk factors for secondary Raynaud's include:
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- Associated diseases. These include conditions such as scleroderma and lupus.
- Certain occupations. People in occupations that cause repetitive trauma, such as operating tools that vibrate, may be more vulnerable to secondary Raynaud's.
- Exposure to certain substances. Smoking, medications that affect the blood vessels, and exposure to certain chemicals, such as vinyl chloride, are associated with an increased risk of Raynaud's.
- Wigley FM. Clinical manifestations and diagnosis of the Raynaud phenomenon. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Aug. 20, 2014.
- Questions and answers about Raynaud's phenomenon. National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases. http://www.niams.nih.gov/Health_Info/Raynauds_Phenomenon/default.asp. Accessed Aug. 20, 2014.
- Wigley FM. Initial treatment of the Raynaud phenomenon. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Aug. 20, 2014.
- Raynaud's disease. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/dci/Diseases/raynaud/ray_all.html. Accessed Aug. 20, 2014.
- Malenfant D, et al. The efficacy of complementary and alternative medicine in the treatment of Raynaud's phenomenon: A literature review and meta-analysis. Rheumatology. 2009;48:791.
- Natural product effectiveness checker: Raynaud's syndrome. Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database. http://www.naturaldatabase.com. Accessed Aug. 28, 2014.
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