Diagnosis

At the time a rabid animal bites you, there's no way to know whether the animal has transmitted the rabies virus to you. For this reason, treatment to prevent the rabies virus from infecting your body is recommended if the doctor thinks there's a chance you have been exposed to the virus.

Treatment

Once a rabies infection is established, there's no effective treatment. Though a small number of people have survived rabies, the disease is usually fatal. For that reason, if you think you've been exposed to rabies, you must get a series of shots to prevent the infection from taking hold.

Treatment for people bitten by animals with rabies

If you've been bitten by an animal that is known to have rabies, you'll receive a series of shots to prevent the rabies virus from infecting you. If the animal that bit you can't be found, it may be safest to assume that the animal has rabies. But this will depend on several factors, such as the type of animal and the situation in which the bite occurred.

Rabies shots include:

  • A fast-acting shot (rabies immune globulin) to prevent the virus from infecting you. Part of this injection is given near the area where the animal bit you if possible, as soon as possible after the bite.
  • A series of rabies vaccines to help your body learn to identify and fight the rabies virus. Rabies vaccines are given as injections in your arm. You receive four injections over 14 days.

Determining whether the animal that bit you has rabies

In some cases, it's possible to determine whether the animal that bit you has rabies before beginning the series of rabies shots. That way, if it's determined the animal is healthy, you won't need the shots.

Procedures for determining whether an animal has rabies vary by situation. For instance:

  • Pets and farm animals. Cats, dogs and ferrets that bite can be observed for 10 days to see if they show signs and symptoms of rabies. If the animal that bit you remains healthy during the observation period, then it doesn't have rabies and you won't need rabies shots. Other pets and farm animals are considered on a case-by-case basis. Talk to your doctor and local public health officials to determine whether you should receive rabies shots.
  • Wild animals that can be caught. Wild animals that can be found and captured, such as a bat that came into your home, can be killed and tested for rabies. Tests on the animal's brain may reveal the rabies virus. If the animal doesn't have rabies, you won't need the shots.
  • Animals that can't be found. If the animal that bit you can't be found, discuss the situation with your doctor and the local health department. In certain cases, it may be safest to assume that the animal had rabies and proceed with the rabies shots. In other cases, it may be unlikely that the animal that bit you had rabies and it may be determined that rabies shots aren't necessary.

Preparing for your appointment

If an animal bites you, seek medical attention for the wound. Also tell the doctor about the circumstances of your injury. The doctor will ask:

  • What animal bit you?
  • Was it a wild animal or a pet?
  • If it was a pet, do you know to whom the animal belongs? Was it vaccinated?
  • Can you describe the animal's behavior before it bit you? Was the animal provoked?
  • Were you able to capture or kill the animal after it bit you?

What you can do in the meantime

Wash your wound gently and thoroughly with soap and generous amounts of water. This may help wash away the virus.

If the animal that bit you can be contained or captured without causing more injury, do so. Do not kill the animal with a blow or a shot to the head, as the resulting injuries may make it difficult to perform laboratory tests to determine whether the animal has rabies.

Tell your doctor that you have captured the animal that bit you. Your doctor may then contact the local health department to determine what to do with the animal.

Nov. 04, 2016
References
  1. Ferri FF. Rabies. In: Ferri's Clinical Advisor 2017. Philadelphia, Pa.: Elsevier; 2017. https://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed Aug. 24, 2016.
  2. Longo DL, et al., eds. Rabies and other rhabdovirus infections. In: Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine. 19th ed. New York, N.Y.: McGraw-Hill Education; 2015. http://accessmedicine.com. Accessed Aug. 24, 2016.
  3. AskMayoExpert. Rabies. Rochester, Minn.: Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research; 2015.
  4. Rabies. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. http://www.cdc.gov/rabies/. Accessed Aug. 24, 2016.
  5. Papadakis MA, et al., eds. Viral and rickettsial infections. In: Current Medical Diagnosis & Treatment 2017. 56th ed. New York, N.Y.: The McGraw-Hill Companies; 2017. http://www.accessmedicine.com. Accessed Aug. 24, 2016.
  6. Rabies vaccine information statements. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements/rabies.html. Accessed Aug. 24, 2016.