In-depth

Prevention

Pregnancy and diabetes

Prenatal vitamins and pregnancy

Symptoms

Fatigue

Shortness of breath

Tests and diagnosis

Cardiac catheterization

Cardiac catheterization is used as a test for some heart conditions and as a procedure to treat some types of heart disease. Find out more.

Echocardiogram

Electrocardiogram

X-ray

Treatments and drugs

Angioplasty

Coronary angioplasty and stents can reopen clogged heart arteries if buildup of plaques is causing chest pain, shortness of breath or a heart attack.

Cardiac ablation

Jan. 31, 2016
References
  1. Facts about pulmonary atresia. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/heartdefects/pulmonaryatresia.html. Accessed Oct. 28, 2015.
  2. Single ventricle defects. American Heart Association. http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Conditions/CongenitalHeartDefects/AboutCongenitalHeartDefects/Single-Ventricle-Defects_UCM_307037_Article.jsp#.VjE3ztiFOic. Accessed Oct. 28, 2015.
  3. Axelrod DM, et al. Pulmonary atresia with intact ventricular septum (PA/IVS). http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Oct. 28, 2015.
  4. Congenital heart defects. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/chd#. Accessed Oct. 29, 2015.
  5. Congenital heart defects: Tracking and research. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/heartdefects/research.html. Accessed Nov. 20, 2015.
  6. Congenital heart defects and CCHD. March of Dimes. http://www.marchofdimes.org/baby/congenital-heart-defects.aspx. Accessed Nov. 20, 2015.
  7. Isotretinoin and other retinoids during pregnancy. March of Dimes. http://www.marchofdimes.org/pregnancy/isotretinoin-and-other-retinoids-during-pregnancy.aspx. Accessed Nov. 20, 2015.
  8. Perloff JK, et al. Pulmonary atresia with intact ventricular septum. In: Perloff's Clinical Recognition of Congenital Heart Disease. 6th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2012. http://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed Nov. 23, 2015.
  9. Kouchoukos NT, et al. Pulmonary atresia and intact ventricular septum. In: Kirklin/Barratt-Boyles Cardiac Surgery. 4th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2013. http://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed Nov. 23, 2015.
  10. Geggel RL. Diagnosis and initial management of cyanotic heart disease in the newborn. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Nov. 23, 2015.
  11. Park MK. Cyanotic congenital heart defects. In: Pediatric Cardiology for Practitioners. 6th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Mosby Elsevier; 2014. http://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed Nov. 23, 2015.
  12. Hay WW, et al. Cardiovascular diseases. In: Current Diagnosis & Treatment: Pediatrics. 22nd ed. New York, N.Y.: McGraw-Hill Education; 2014. http://www.accessmedicine.com. Accessed Nov. 25, 2015.
  13. Your child's special needs. American Heart Association. http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Conditions/CongenitalHeartDefects/CongenitalHeartDefectsToolsResources/Web-Booklet-If-Your-Child-Has-a-Congenital-Heart-Defect_UCM_316608_Article.jsp#.VlYG3diFOic. Accessed Nov. 25, 2015.
  14. Riggen EA. Allscripts EPSi. Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. Oct. 20, 2015.
  15. Taggart NW (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. Jan. 6, 2016.