Find out what causes different types of abdominal pain.
Foot pain? Headache? Sore throat? Skin rash? Use the Symptom Checker to find out what's causing your symptom.
Tests and diagnosis
Has your doctor recommended a flexible sigmoidoscopy exam? Here's what you need to know about preparation and the exam itself.
Find out what to expect during a needle biopsy.
June 12, 2015
- Proctitis. National Institute for Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. http://digestive.niddk.nih.gov/ddiseases/pubs/proctitis/index.htm. Accessed May 6, 2015.
- Lake AM. Food protein-induced proctitis/colitis and enteropathy of infancy. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed May 6, 2015.
- Proctitis. Merck Manual Professional Edition. http://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/gastrointestinal-disorders/anorectal-disorders/proctitis. Accessed April 29, 2015.
- Wu X, et al. Pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management of ulcerative proctitis, chronic radiation proctopathy, and diversion proctitis. Inflammatory Bowel Diseases. 2015;21:703.
- Hoentjen F, et al. Infectious proctitis: When to suspect it is not inflammatory bowel disease. Digestive Diseases and Sciences. 2012;57:269.
- Mendenhall WM, et al. Management of radiation proctitis. American Journal of Clinical Oncology. 2014;37:517.
- Sarin A, et al. Management of radiation proctitis. Gastroenterology Clinics of North America. 2013;42: 913.
- Kent A, et al. Managing intractable proctitis and the problematic pouch. Digestive Diseases. 2014;32:427.
- Nostrant TT. Clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment of radiation proctitis. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed April 29, 2015.
- Feldman M, et al. Ulcerative colitis. In: Sleisenger and Fordtran's Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, Management. 10th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2016. http://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed April 29, 2015.
- What Is Anemia? National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/anemia. Accessed May 8, 2015.
- Shen B. Diversion colitis. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed May 10, 2015.
- Picco MF (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, Fla. May 19, 2015.