Certain factors can make you more likely to develop presbyopia, including:
Oct. 17, 2014
- Age. Age is the greatest risk factor for presbyopia. Almost everyone experiences some degree of presbyopia after age 40.
- Other medical conditions. Being farsighted or having certain diseases — such as diabetes, multiple sclerosis or cardiovascular diseases — can increase your risk of premature presbyopia, which is presbyopia in people younger than 40.
- Drugs. Certain drugs are associated with premature presbyopic symptoms, including antidepressants, antihistamines and diuretics.
- Mian SI. Visual impairment in adults: Refractive disorders and presbyopia. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed May 20, 2014.
- AskMayoExpert. Can contact lenses correct for presbyopia? Rochester, Minn.: Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research; 2014.
- Baudu P, et al. Uncorrected binocular performance after biaspheric ablation profile for presbyopic corneal treatment using AMARIS with the PresbyMAX Module. American Journal of Ophthalmology. 2013;155:636.
- What is LASIK? U.S. Food and Drug Administration. http://www.fda.gov/MedicalDevices/ProductsandMedicalProcedures/SurgeryandLifeSupport/LASIK/ucm061358.htm. Accessed May 20, 2014.
- Alternative refractive surgery procedures. EyeSmart. http://www.geteyesmart.org/eyesmart/glasses-contacts-lasik/refractive-surgery-alternative-procedures.cfm. Accessed May 20, 2014.
- Li H, et al. Optical correction of refractive error for preventing and treating eye symptoms in computer users. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/14651858.CD009877/abstract. Accessed May 20, 2014.
- Garcia-Gonazlez M, et al. Uncorrected binocular performance after biaspheric ablation profile (PresbyMAX) for presbyopic corneal treatment. American Journal of Ophthalmology. 2013;156:847.
- Khor WB, et al. The role of presbyopia-correcting intraocular lenses after laser in situ keratomileusis. Current Opinion in Ophthalmology. 2013;24:35.
- Lindstrom RL, et al. Corneal inlays for presbyopia correction. Current Opinion in Ophthalmology. 2013;24:281.
- Ryan A, et al. Corneal approach to hyperopic presbyopia treatment: Six-month outcomes of a new multifocal excimer laser in situ keratomileusis procedure. Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery. 2013;39:1226.
- Refractive errors and refractive surgery preferred practice patterns — 2013. American Academy of Ophthalmology. http://one.aao.org/preferred-practice-pattern/refractive-errors--surgery-ppp-2013. Accessed June 9, 2014.
- Comprehensive adult medical eye evaluation — 2010. American Academy of Ophthalmology. http://one.aao.org/preferred-practice-pattern/comprehensive-adult-medical-eye-evaluation--octobe. Accessed June 9, 2014.
- Robertson DM (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. July 7, 2014.
- Tomita M, et al. Small-aperture corneal inlay implantation to treat presbyopia after laser in situ keratomileusis. Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery. 2013;39:898.
- Eye health tips. National Eye Institute. http://www.nei.nih.gov/healthyeyes/eyehealthtips.asp. Accessed June 9, 2014.
- Cataract in the adult eye. American Academy of Ophthalmology. http://one.aao.org/preferred-practice-pattern/cataract-in-adult-eye-ppp--october-2011. Accessed June 9, 2014.
- Regulations (Standards — 29 CFR). Occupational Safety and Health. https://www.osha.gov/pls/oshaweb/owadisp.show_document?p_table=STANDARDS&p_id=9778. Accessed June 9, 2014.
- Presbyopia: Optometric Clinical Practice Guideline: Care of the Patient with Presbyopia. American Optometric Association. http://www.aoa.org/documents/optometrists/CPG-17.pdf. Accessed June 9, 2014.
- Care of the patient with presbyopia. Rockville, Md.: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. http://www.guideline.gov/content.aspx?id=33586. Accessed June 10, 2014.
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