Although polio can cause paralysis and death, the vast majority of people who are infected with the poliovirus don't become sick and are never aware they've been infected with polio.
Some people who develop symptoms from the poliovirus contract nonparalytic polio — a type of polio that doesn't lead to paralysis (abortive polio). This usually causes the same mild, flu-like signs and symptoms typical of other viral illnesses.
Signs and symptoms, which generally last one to 10 days, include:
- Sore throat
- Back pain or stiffness
- Neck pain or stiffness
- Pain or stiffness in the arms or legs
- Muscle weakness or tenderness
In rare cases, poliovirus infection leads to paralytic polio, the most serious form of the disease. Paralytic polio has several types, based on the part of your body that's affected — your spinal cord (spinal polio), your brainstem (bulbar polio) or both (bulbospinal polio).
Initial signs and symptoms of paralytic polio, such as fever and headache, often mimic those of nonparalytic polio. Within a week, however, signs and symptoms specific to paralytic polio appear, including:
- Loss of reflexes
- Severe muscle aches or weakness
- Loose and floppy limbs (flaccid paralysis), often worse on one side of the body
Post-polio syndrome is a cluster of disabling signs and symptoms that affect some people several years — an average of 35 years — after they had polio. Common signs and symptoms include:
- Progressive muscle or joint weakness and pain
- General fatigue and exhaustion after minimal activity
- Muscle atrophy
- Breathing or swallowing problems
- Sleep-related breathing disorders, such as sleep apnea
- Decreased tolerance of cold temperatures
- Cognitive problems, such as concentration and memory difficulties
- Depression or mood swings
When to see a doctor
Be sure to check with your doctor for polio vaccination recommendations before traveling to a part of the world where polio may still occur naturally, or where oral polio vaccine (OPV) is still used, such as Central and South America, Africa and Asia. In countries that use the OPV — vaccine made with live, but weakened (attenuated) polio virus — the risk of paralytic polio to travelers is extremely low, but not zero.
Additionally, call your doctor if:
March 11, 2014
- Your child hasn't completed the series of polio vaccinations
- Your child experiences an allergic reaction after receiving polio vaccine
- Your child has problems other than a mild redness or soreness at the vaccine injection site
- You have questions about adult vaccination or other concerns about polio immunization
- You had polio years ago and are now experiencing unexplained weakness and fatigue
- Jubelt B. Polio and infectious diseases of the anterior horn. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Oct. 27, 2013.
- Goldman L, et al. Goldman's Cecil Medicine. 24th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2012. http://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed Oct. 27, 2013.
- Maurice J. Ending polio — If at first you don't succeed … . The Lancet. 2013;381:1261.
- Brunette GW, et. al. CDC Health Information for International Travel 2014: The Yellow Book. Philadelphia, Pa: Mosby Elsevier; 2014. http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/yellowbook/2014/chapter-3-infectious-diseases-related-to-travel/poliomyelitis. Accessed Oct. 27, 2013.
- Ferri FF. Ferri's Clinical Advisor 2014: 5 Books in 1. Philadelphia, Pa.: Mosby Elsevier; 2014. https://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed Oct. 27, 2013.
- Kliegman RM, et al. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 19th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2011. http://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed Oct. 27, 2013.
- Lexell J, et al. Life satisfaction and self-reported impairments in persons with late effects of polio. Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine. 2012;55:577.
- Simionescu L, et al. Post-polio syndrome. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Nov. 4, 2013.
- Polio and prevention. The Global Polio Eradication Initiative. http://www.polioeradication.org/Polioandprevention.aspx. Accessed Nov. 4, 2013.
- Polio. National Network for Immunization Information. http://www.immunizationinfo.org/vaccines/polio. Accessed Nov. 4, 2013.
- Pediarix vaccine: Questions and answers. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/vpd-vac/combo-vaccines/pediarix/faqs-hcp-pediarix.htm. Accessed Nov. 4, 2013.
- Steckelberg JM (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. Nov. 5, 2013.
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