In-depth

Complications

Dysphagia

Prevention

Childhood vaccines

Vaccines for adults

Symptoms

Fatigue

Headache

Shortness of breath

Symptom Checker

Foot pain? Headache? Sore throat? Skin rash? Use the Symptom Checker to find out what's causing your symptom.

Tests and diagnosis

Chest X-rays

June 21, 2016
References
  1. Pneumonia. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/pnu. Accessed April 15, 2016.
  2. AskMayoExpert. Community-acquired pneumonia (adult). Rochester, Minn.: Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research; 2014.
  3. Goldman L, et al., eds. Overview of pneumonia. In: Goldman-Cecil Medicine. 25th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2016. http://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed April 18, 2016.
  4. Schauner S, et al. Community-acquired pneumonia in children: A look at the IDSA guidelines. Journal of Family Practice. 2013;62:9.
  5. Attridge RT, et al. Health care-associated pneumonia: An evidence-based review. American Journal of Medicine. 2011;124:689.
  6. Hunter JD. Ventilator associated pneumonia. BMJ. 2012;344:e3325.
  7. Dockrell DH, et al. Pneumococcal pneumonia: Mechanisms of infection and resolution. Chest. 2012;142:482.
  8. Reynolds RH, et al. Pneumonia in the immunocompetent patient. British Journal of Radiology. 2010;83:998.
  9. Remington LT, et al. Community-acquired pneumonia. Current Opinion Pulmonary Medicine. 2014;20:215.
  10. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Adults: Protect yourself with pneumococcal vaccines. http://www.cdc.gov/features/adult-pneumococcal/. Accessed April 15, 2016.
  11. Marrie TJ, et al. Pneumococcal pneumonia in adults. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed April 15, 2016.
  12. Barbara Woodward Lips Patient Education Center. Care following hospitalization for community-acquired pneumonia. Rochester, Minn.: Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research; 2013.
  13. AskMayoExpert. Community-acquired pneumonia (pediatric). Rochester, Minn.: Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research; 2014.
  14. Barson WJ. Community-acquired pneumonia in children: Outpatient treatment. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed April 15, 2016.
  15. File TM. Treatment of community-acquired pneumonia in adults in the outpatient setting. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed April 20, 2016.
  16. Chang CC, et al. Over-the-counter (OTC) medications to reduce cough as an adjunct to antibiotics for acute pneumonia in children and adults. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/14651858.CD006088.pub4/full. Accessed April 20, 2016.
  17. Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. http://www.cdc.gov/pneumonia/atypical/mycoplasma/. Accessed April 20, 2016.
  18. Barson WJ. Community-acquired pneumonia in children: Clinical features and diagnosis. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed April 20, 2016.
  19. Olson EJ (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. May 1, 2016.