Pneumonia can affect anyone. But the two age groups at highest risk are:
- Children who are 2 years old or younger developing
- People who are age 65 or older
Other risk factors include:
March 14, 2015
- Chronic disease. You're more likely to get pneumonia if you have asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or heart disease.
- Weakened or suppressed immune system. People who have HIV/AIDS, who've had an organ transplant, or who receive chemotherapy or long-term steroids are at risk.
- Smoking. Smoking damages your body's natural defenses against the bacteria and viruses that cause pneumonia.
- Being hospitalized. You're at greater risk of pneumonia if you're in a hospital intensive care unit, especially if you're on a machine that helps you breathe (a ventilator).
- Pneumonia. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/pnu. Accessed Jan. 20, 2015.
- AskMayoExpert. Community-acquired pneumonia. Rochester, Minn.: Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research; 2015.
- Longo DL, et al. Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine. 18th ed. New York, N.Y.: McGraw-Hill; 2012. http://accessmedicine.mhmedical.com/book.aspx?bookid=331. Accessed Jan. 21, 2015.
- Schauner S, et al. Community-acquired pneumonia in children: A look at the IDSA guidelines. Journal of Family Practice. 2013;62:9.
- Attridge RT, et al. Health care-associated pneumonia: An evidence-based review. American Journal of Medicine. 2011;124:689.
- Hunter JD. Ventilator associated pneumonia. BMJ. 2012;344:e3325.
- Dockrell DH, et al. Pneumococcal pneumonia: Mechanisms of infection and resolution. Chest. 2012;142:482.
- Reynolds RH, et al. Pneumonia in the immunocompetent patient. The British Journal of Radiology. 2010;83:998.
- Rosenow EC (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. Jan. 20, 2015.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Adults: Protect yourself with pneumococcal vaccines. http://www.cdc.gov/features/adult-pneumococcal/. Accessed Jan. 20, 2015.
- Marrie TJ, et al. Pneumococcal pneumonia in adults. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Jan. 20, 2015.
- Barbara Woodward Lips Patient Education Center. Care following hospitalization for community-acquired pneumonia. Rochester, Minn.: Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research; 2013.
- AskMayoExpert. Community-acquired pneumonia (pediatric). Rochester, Minn.: Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research; 2014.
- Barson WJ. Community-acquired pneumonia in children: Outpatient treatment. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Jan. 21, 2015.
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