Don't ignore leg pain that starts when you exercise and stops when you rest. It could be claudication. Understand its causes and treatments.
Erectile dysfunction (ED) can be the result of physical or psychological causes or both. Discover what causes ED and what treatments are available.
Tests and diagnosis
The ankle-brachial index test is a noninvasive test for peripheral artery disease. Find out whether you're a good candidate for this noninvasive test.
A computerized tomography (CT) angiogram could tell if your heart's arteries are blocked. These tests aren't for everyone, and some experts worry about radiation risks.
Ultrasound imaging uses high-frequency sound waves to create images of structures in your body.
Jun. 22, 2012
- Peripheral artery disease. The Merck Manuals: The Merck Manual for Healthcare Professionals. http://www.merck.com/mmpe/print/sec07/ch080/ch080f.html. Accessed May 8, 2012.
- Peripheral artery disease. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/pad/. Accessed May 8, 2012.
- Mohler III ER. Clinical features, diagnosis, and natural history of lower extremity peripheral arterial disease. http://www.uptodate.com/index. Accessed May 8, 2012.
- Prevention and treatment of PAD. American Heart Association. http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Conditions/More/PeripheralArteryDisease/Prevention-and-Treatment-of-PAD_UCM_301308_Article.jsp. Accessed May 8, 2012.
- Hirsch AT, et al. ACC/AHA 2005 guidelines for the management of patients with peripheral arterial disease. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 2006;47:e1.
- Rooke TW, et al. 2011 ACCF/AHA focused update of the guideline for the management of patients with peripheral arterial disease. Circulation. 2011;124:2020.
- Kuller LH. Does ginkgo biloba reduce the risk of cardiovascular events? Circulation: Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes. 2010;3:41.