Pemphigus is characterized by blisters on your skin and mucous membranes. The blisters rupture easily, leaving open sores, which may ooze and become infected.
The signs and symptoms of the two main types of pemphigus are as follows:
- Pemphigus vulgaris. This type usually begins with blisters in your mouth and then on your skin or genital mucous membranes. The blisters typically are painful, but don't itch. Blisters in your mouth or throat may make it hard to swallow and eat.
- Pemphigus foliaceus. This type doesn't usually affect mucous membranes. And the blisters tend not to be painful. This condition may affect any skin, but most blisters are on the chest, back and shoulders. The blisters cause the skin to be crusty and itchy.
When to see a doctor
See your doctor if you develop blisters inside your mouth or on your skin. If you've already been diagnosed with pemphigus and are receiving treatment, see your doctor if you develop:
- New blisters or sores
- A rapid spread in the number of sores
- Fever, redness or swelling, which may indicate infection
- Weakness or achy muscles or joints
Pemphigus is an autoimmune disorder. It's not contagious. In most cases, it's unknown what triggers the disease.
Normally, your immune system attacks foreign invaders, such as harmful viruses and bacteria. But in pemphigus, your immune system mistakenly produces antibodies that attack healthy cells in your skin and mucous membranes.
Rarely, pemphigus develops as a side effect of medications, such as certain blood pressure drugs. This type of pemphigus usually disappears when the medicine is stopped.
Your risk of pemphigus increases if you're middle-aged or older. People of Jewish ancestry have an increased incidence of pemphigus vulgaris.
The open sores of pemphigus make you highly vulnerable to infection, which, if it spreads to your bloodstream, can be fatal. Possible complications of pemphigus include:
- Infection of your skin
- Infection that spreads to your bloodstream (sepsis)
- Gum disease and tooth loss, if you have blisters in your mouth
- Medication side effects, such as high blood pressure and infection
- Death from infection
Aug. 04, 2017
- AskMayoExpert. Pemphigus. Rochester, Minn.: Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research; 2015.
- Pemphigus. National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases. http://www.niams.nih.gov/health_info/pemphigus/. Accessed Sept. 3, 2015.
- Martin LK, et al. Interventions for pemphigus vulgaris and pemphigus foliaceus. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. http://ovidsp.tx.ovid.com/sp-3.16.0b/ovidweb.cgi. Accessed Sept. 3, 2015.
- Bope ET, et al. Diseases of the skin. In: Conn's Current Therapy 2015. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2015. http://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed Sept. 3, 2015.
- Kasperkiewicz M, et al. Current therapy of the pemphigus group. Clinics in Dermatology. 2012;30:84.
- Venugopal SS, et al. Diagnosis and clinical features of pemphigus vulgaris. Dermatology Clinics. 2011;29:373.
- Heelan K, et al. Durable remission of pemphigus with a fixed-dose rituximab protocol. JAMA Dermatology. 2014;150:703.
- Patterson JW. The vesiculobullous reaction pattern. In: Weedon's Skin Pathology. 4th ed. Maryland Heights, Mo.: Churchill Livingstone Elsevier; 2016.
- Goldsmith LA, et al., eds. Pemphigus. In: Fitzpatrick's Dermatology in General Medicine. 8th ed. New York, N.Y.: The McGraw-Hill Companies; 2012. http://www.accessmedicine.com. Accessed Sept. 9, 2015.
- Hertl M, et al. Management of refractory pemphigus vulgaris and pemphigus foliaceus. www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Sept. 3, 2015.
- Hertl M, et al. Initial management of pemphigus vulgaris and pemphigus foliaceus. ww.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Sept. 3, 2015.
- Saag KG, et al. Major side effects of systemic glucocorticoids. www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Sept. 8, 2015.
- Ferri FF. Managing pemphigus vulgaris. In: Ferri's Clinical Advisor 2016. Philadelphia, Pa.: Mosby Elsevier; 2016.
- Pemphigus vulgaris. Merck Manuals Professional Edition. www.merckmanuals.com. Accessed Sept. 9, 2015.
- Mustafa MB, et al. Oral mucosal manifestations of autoimmune skin diseases. Autoimmunity Reviews. 2015;14:930.
- Gibson LE (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. Oct. 13, 2015.