Parkinson's disease can't be cured, but medications can help control your symptoms, often dramatically. In some later cases, surgery may be advised.
Your doctor may also recommend lifestyle changes, especially ongoing aerobic exercise. In some cases, physical therapy that focuses on balance and stretching also is important.
Medications can help you manage problems with walking, movement and tremor by increasing your brain's supply of dopamine. However, dopamine can't be given directly, as it can't enter your brain.
You may have significant improvement of your symptoms after beginning Parkinson's disease treatment. Over time, however, the benefits of drugs frequently diminish or become less consistent, although symptoms usually can continue to be fairly well controlled.
Your doctor may prescribe medications, which may include:
Carbidopa-levodopa. Levodopa, the most effective Parkinson's disease medication, is a natural chemical that passes into your brain and is converted to dopamine.
Levodopa is combined with carbidopa (Parcopa, Sinemet), which protects levodopa from premature conversion to dopamine outside your brain, which prevents or lessens side effects such as nausea. In Europe, levodopa is combined with a similar substance, benserazide (Madopar).
Side effects may include nausea or lightheadedness (orthostatic hypotension).
After years, as your disease progresses, the benefit from levodopa may become less stable with a tendency to wax and wane ("wearing off").
Also, you may experience involuntary movements (dyskinesia) after taking higher doses of levodopa. Your doctor may lessen your dose or adjust the times of your doses to control these effects.
Dopamine agonists. Unlike levodopa, dopamine agonists don't change into dopamine. Instead, they mimic dopamine effects in your brain.
They aren't as effective as levodopa in treating your symptoms. However, they last longer and may be used with levodopa to smooth the sometimes off-and-on effect of levodopa.
Dopamine agonists include pramipexole (Mirapex), ropinirole (Requip) and rotigotine (given as a patch, Neupro). A short-acting injectable dopamine agonist, apomorphine (Apokyn), is used for quick relief.
Some of the side effects of dopamine agonists are similar to the side effects of carbidopa-levodopa, but also include hallucinations, swelling, sleepiness and compulsive behaviors such as hypersexuality, gambling and eating. If you're taking these medications and you behave in a way that's out of character for you, talk to your doctor.
MAO-B inhibitors. These medications include selegiline (Eldepryl, Zelapar) and rasagiline (Azilect). They help prevent the breakdown of brain dopamine by inhibiting the brain enzyme monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B). This enzyme metabolizes brain dopamine. Side effects may include nausea or headaches.
When added to carbidopa-levodopa, these medications increase the risk of hallucinations.
These medications are not often used in combination with most antidepressants or certain narcotics due to potentially serious but rare reactions. Check with your doctor before taking any additional medications with a MAO-B inhibitor.
Catechol O-methyltransferase (COMT) inhibitors. Entacapone (Comtan) is the primary medication from this class. This medication mildly prolongs the effect of levodopa therapy by blocking an enzyme that breaks down dopamine.
Side effects, including an increased risk of involuntary movements (dyskinesias), mainly result from an enhanced levodopa effect. Other side effects include diarrhea or other enhanced levodopa side effects.
Tolcapone (Tasmar) is another COMT inhibitor that is rarely prescribed due to a risk of serious liver damage and liver failure.
Anticholinergics. These medications were used for many years to help control the tremor associated with Parkinson's disease. Several anticholinergic medications are available, including benztropine (Cogentin) or trihexyphenidyl.
However, their modest benefits are often offset by side effects such as impaired memory, confusion, hallucinations, constipation, dry mouth and impaired urination.
Amantadine. Doctors may prescribe amantadine alone to provide short-term relief of symptoms of mild, early-stage Parkinson's disease. It may also be given with carbidopa-levodopa therapy during the later stages of Parkinson's disease to control involuntary movements (dyskinesias) induced by carbidopa-levodopa.
Side effects may include a purple mottling of the skin, ankle swelling or hallucinations.
Nov. 12, 2013
Deep brain stimulation. In deep brain stimulation (DBS), surgeons implant electrodes into a specific part of your brain. The electrodes are connected to a generator implanted in your chest near your collarbone that sends electrical pulses to your brain and may reduce your Parkinson's disease symptoms.
Your doctor may adjust your settings as necessary to treat your condition. Surgery involves risks, including infections, stroke or brain hemorrhage. Some people experience problems with the DBS system or have complications due to stimulation, and your doctor may need to adjust or replace some parts of the system.
Deep brain stimulation is most often offered to people with advanced Parkinson's disease who have unstable medication (levodopa) responses.
DBS can stabilize medication fluctuations, reduce or halt involuntary movements (dyskinesias), reduce tremor, reduce rigidity, and improve slowing of movement.
DBS is effective in controlling erratic and fluctuating responses to levodopa or for controlling dyskinesias that don't improve with medication adjustments.
However, DBS isn't helpful for problems that don't respond to levodopa therapy apart from tremor. A tremor may be controlled by DBS even if the tremor isn't very responsive to levodopa.
DBS may provide a sustained benefit to Parkinson's symptoms persisting for years after the procedure. However, DBS doesn't keep Parkinson's disease from progressing.
- Parkinson's disease: Hope through research. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/parkinsons_disease/parkinsons_disease.htm. Accessed Aug. 8, 2013.
- Chou KL. Clinical manifestations of Parkinson disease. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Aug. 8, 2013.
- Jankovic J. Etiology and pathogenesis of Parkinson disease. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Aug. 8, 2013.
- Chou KL. Diagnosis of Parkinson disease. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Aug. 8, 2013.
- Tarsy D. Pharmacologic treatment of Parkinson disease. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Aug. 8, 2013.
- Tarsy D. Surgical treatment of Parkinson disease. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Aug. 8, 2013.
- Tarsy D. Nonpharmacologic management of Parkinson disease. http://www.uptodate.com/home/. Accessed Aug. 8, 2013.
- Ahlskog JE. Does vigorous exercise have a neuroprotective effect in Parkinson disease? Neurology. 2011;77:288.
- Rakel D. Integrative Medicine. 3rd ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2012. http://www.clinicalkey.com/. Accessed Aug. 12, 2013.
- 10. Parkinson's disease: Fitness counts. National Parkinson Foundation. http://www.parkinson.org/Search-Pages/Search.aspx?pKeywords=fitness. Accessed Aug. 12, 2013.
- 11. Mischley LY, et al. Coenzyme Q10 deficiency in patients with Parkinson's disease. Journal of the Neurological Sciences. 2012;318:72.
- 12. Li F., et al. Tai chi and postural stability in patients with Parkinson's disease. The New England Journal of Medicine. 2012;366:511.
- 13. Complementary therapies and Parkinson's. Parkinson's Disease Society of the United Kingdom. http://www.parkinsons.org.uk/content/complementary-therapies-and-parkinsons-booklet. Accessed Aug. 12, 2013.
- 14. Riggin EA. Decision Support System. Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. Aug. 13, 2013.
- 15. Saliva gland test for Parkinson's shows promise, study finds. Mayo Clinic. http://www.mayoclinic.org/news2013-sct/7249.html. Accessed Aug. 15, 2013.
- 16. Ahlskog JE (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. Sept. 5, 2013.