Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome affects women taking injectable hormone medications to stimulate the development of eggs in the ovaries. This may occur in women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF), ovulation induction or intrauterine insemination.
Too much hormone medication in your system can lead to ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS), in which your ovaries become swollen and painful. A small number of women may develop severe OHSS, which can cause rapid weight gain, abdominal pain, vomiting and shortness of breath.
Less often, OHSS happens during fertility treatments using medications you take by mouth, such as clomiphene (Clomid, Serophene). Occasionally OHSS occurs spontaneously, not related to fertility treatments.