Osteomalacia can be difficult to diagnose. To pinpoint the cause and to rule out other bone disorders, such as osteoporosis, you might undergo one or more of the following tests:

  • Blood and urine tests. These help detect low levels of vitamin D and problems with calcium and phosphorus.
  • X-rays. Slight cracks in your bones that are visible on X-rays are characteristic of osteomalacia.
  • Bone biopsy. Using general anesthesia, a surgeon inserts a slender needle through your skin and into your pelvic bone above the hip to withdraw a small sample of bone. Although a bone biopsy is accurate in detecting osteomalacia, it's rarely needed to make the diagnosis.