In order to pinpoint the underlying cause of osteomalacia and to rule out other bone disorders, such as osteoporosis, you may undergo one or more of the following tests:
May. 03, 2011
- Blood and urine tests. In cases of osteomalacia caused by vitamin D deficiency or by phosphorus loss, abnormal levels of vitamin D and the minerals calcium and phosphorus are often detected.
- X-ray. Slight cracks in your bones that are visible on X-rays, referred to as Looser transformation zones, are a characteristic feature of people with osteomalacia.
- Bone biopsy. During a bone biopsy, your doctor inserts a slender needle through your skin and into your bone to withdraw a small sample for viewing under a microscope. Although a bone biopsy is very accurate in detecting osteomalacia, it's not often needed to make the diagnosis.
- Bhan A, et al. Osteomalacia as a result of vitamin D deficiency. Endocrinology Metabolism Clinics of North America. 2010;39:321.
- Rickets. In: Ferri FF. Ferri's Clinical Advisor 2011: Instant Diagnosis and Treatment. Philadelphia, Pa.: Mosby Elsevier; 2011.http://www.mdconsult.com/books/about.do?eid=4-u1.0-B978-0-323-05610-6..C2009-0-38600-6--TOP&isbn=978-0-323-05610-6&about=true&uniqId=230100505-53. Accessed April 1, 2011.
- Rickets and osteomalacia. In: Kronenberg HM, et al. Williams Textbook of Endocrinology. 11th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2008. http://www.mdconsult.com/das/book/body/191205553-3/0/1555/0.html#. Accessed April 1, 2011.
- Menkes CJ. Diagnosis and treatment of osteomalacia. http://www.uptodate.com/home/index.html. Accessed April 1, 2011.
- Rickets and hypervitaminosis D. In: Kliegman RM. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 18th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2007. http://www.mdconsult.com/das/book/body/208746819-6/0/1608/0.html. NGC. http://www.guideline.gov/content.aspx?id=13540. Accessed April 1, 2011.
- Binkley N, et al. Low vitamin D status: Definition, prevalence, consequences, and correction. Endocrinology Metabolism Clinics of North America. 2010;39:287.
- Menkes CJ. Clinical manifestations and etiology of osteomalacia. http://www.uptodate.com/home/index.html. Accessed April 1, 2011.
- Chang-Miller A (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. April 4, 2011.