Normally, your immune system works to repel harmful invading organisms, such as viruses, bacteria and fungi, while maintaining a balance between "good" and "bad" microbes that normally inhabit your body. But sometimes these protective mechanisms fail, increasing the number of candida fungi and allowing an oral thrush infection to take hold.
Oral thrush and other candida infections can occur when your immune system is weakened by disease or by drugs such as prednisone, or when antibiotics disturb the natural balance of microorganisms in your body.
These diseases and conditions may make you more susceptible to oral thrush infection:
Aug. 12, 2014
- HIV/AIDS. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) — the virus that causes AIDS — damages or destroys cells of your immune system, making you more susceptible to opportunistic infections that your body would normally resist. Repeated bouts of oral thrush, along with other symptoms, may be early indications of an immune deficiency, such as HIV infection.
- Cancer. If you have cancer, your immune system is likely to be weakened from the disease and from treatments such as chemotherapy and radiation. Both the disease and treatments can increase your risk of candida infections such as oral thrush.
- Diabetes mellitus. If you have untreated diabetes or the disease isn't well-controlled, your saliva may contain large amounts of sugar, which encourages the growth of candida.
- Vaginal yeast infections. Vaginal yeast infections are caused by the same fungus that causes oral thrush. Although a yeast infection isn't dangerous, if you're pregnant you can pass the fungus to your baby during delivery. As a result, your newborn may develop oral thrush.
- Candidiasis. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. http://www.cdc.gov/fungal/diseases/candidiasis/index.html. Accessed June 9, 2014.
- Clinical practice guidelines for the management of candidiasis: 2009 Update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clinical Infectious Diseases. 2009;48:503.
- HIV/AIDS: Oral candidiasis (thrush). Womenshealth.gov. http://www.womenshealth.gov/hiv-aids/opportunistic-infections-and-other-conditions/oral-candidiasis-thrush-and-hiv-aids.html#pubs. Accessed June 9, 2014.
- Oral candidiasis (yeast infection) patient information. American Academy of Oral & Maxillofacial Pathology. http://www.aaomp.org/public/oral-candidiasis.php. Accessed June 9, 2014.
- Vaginal yeast infections — Women's health guide. U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs. http://www.publichealth.va.gov/infectiondontpassiton/womens-health-guide/vaginal-yeast-infections.asp. Accessed July 16, 2014.
- Thrush. MouthHealthy. http://www.mouthhealthy.org/en/az-topics/t/thrush. Accessed June 9, 2014.
- Diabetes. MouthHealthy. http://www.mouthhealthy.org/en/az-topics/d/diabetes. Accessed June 9, 2014.
- Is thrush causing my sore nipples? La Leche League International. http://www.llli.org/FAQ/thrush.html. Accessed June 9, 2014.
- Kauffman CA. Treatment of oropharyngeal and esophageal candidiasis. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed June 9, 2014.
- Kauffman CA, et al. Candida infections in children: An overview. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed June 9, 2014.
- Kauffman CA. Clinical manifestations of oropharyngeal and esophageal candidiasis. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed June 9, 2014.
- Hoecker JL (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. June 16, 2014.
- Salinas TJ (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. July 1, 2014.