Oppositional defiant disorder is a complex problem. Possible risk factors for ODD include:
Feb. 06, 2015
- Temperament — a child who has a temperament that includes difficulty regulating emotions, such as being highly emotionally reactive to situations or having trouble tolerating frustration
- Parenting issues — a child who experiences abuse or neglect, harsh or inconsistent discipline, or a lack of parental supervision
- Other family issues — a child who lives with parent or family discord or has a parent with a mental health or substance use disorder
- Oppositional defiant disorder. In: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders DSM-5. 5th ed. Arlington, Va.: American Psychiatric Association; 2013. http://www.psychiatryonline.org. Accessed Nov. 20, 2014.
- Highlights of changes from DSM-IV-TR to DSM-5. American Psychiatric Publishing. http://www.dsm5.org/Pages/Default.aspx. Accessed Nov. 21, 2014.
- Gabbard GO. Textbook of Psychotherapeutic Treatments. Arlington, Va.: American Psychiatric Publishing; 2014. http://psychiatryonline.org/doi/full/10.1176/appi.books.9781585625048.gg40. Accessed Nov. 21, 2014.
- Hales RE, et al. The American Psychiatric Publishing Textbook of Psychiatry. 6th ed. Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Publishing; 2014. http://www.psychiatryonline.org/resourceToc.aspx?resourceID=5. Accessed Nov. 21, 2014.
- Facts for families: Children with oppositional defiant disorder. American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. http://www.aacap.org/aacap/Families_and_Youth/Facts_for_Families/Facts_for_Families_Pages/Children_With_Oppositional_Defiant_Disorder_72.aspx. Accessed Nov. 21, 2014.
- Oppositional defiant disorder guide. American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. http://www.aacap.org/aacap/Families_and_Youth/Resource_Centers/Oppositional_Defiant_Disorder_Resource_Center/Home.aspx. Accessed Nov. 21, 2014.
- Tervo RC (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. Dec. 16, 2014.
- Qaadir A (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. Jan. 26, 2015.