Diagnosis

Early diagnosis is key to preventing long-term heart damage. After a physical examination, your doctor might order one or more tests to confirm that you have myocarditis and determine its severity. Tests might include:

  • Electrocardiogram (ECG). This noninvasive test shows your heart's electrical patterns and can detect abnormal rhythms.
  • Chest X-ray. An X-ray image shows the size and shape of your heart, as well as whether you have fluid in or around the heart that might indicate heart failure.
  • MRI. Cardiac MRI will show your heart's size, shape and structure. This test can show signs of inflammation of the heart muscle.
  • Echocardiogram. Sound waves create moving images of the beating heart. An echocardiogram might detect enlargement of your heart, poor pumping function, valve problems, a clot within the heart or fluid around your heart.
  • Blood tests. These measure white and red blood cell counts, as well as levels of certain enzymes that indicate damage to your heart muscle. Blood tests can also detect antibodies against viruses and other organisms that might indicate a myocarditis-related infection.
  • Cardiac catheterization and endomyocardial biopsy. A small tube (catheter) is inserted into a vein in your leg or neck and threaded into your heart. In some cases, doctors use a special instrument to remove a tiny sample of heart muscle tissue (biopsy) for analysis in the lab to check for inflammation or infection.
July 12, 2017
References
  1. AskMayoExpert. Myocarditis. Rochester, Minn.: Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research; 2016.
  2. Cooper LT. Clinical manifestations and diagnosis of myocarditis in adults. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Feb. 17, 2017.
  3. Bozkurt B, et al. Current diagnostic and treatment strategies for specific dilated cardiomyopathies: A scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2016;134:e579.
  4. Cooper LT. Etiology and pathogenesis of myocarditis. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Feb. 17, 2017.
  5. Fung G, et al. Myocarditis. Circulation Research. 2016;118:496.
  6. Krejci J, et al. Inflammatory cardiomyopathy: A current view on the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment. Biomed Research International. 2016;2016:1.
  7. Cooper LT. Treatment and prognosis of myocarditis in adults. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Feb. 17, 2017.
  8. Allan CK, et al. Clinical manifestations and diagnosis of myocarditis in children. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Feb. 20, 2017.
  9. Bonow RO, et al. Myocarditis. In: Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine. 10th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2015. http://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed Feb. 20, 2017.
  10. Atas H, et al. Two cases of acute myocarditis with multiple intracardiac thrombi: The role of huypercoagulable states. Heart Views. 2014;15:22.
  11. Stopping the spread of germs at home, work & school. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. http://www.cdc.gov/flu/protect/stopgerms.htm. Accessed Feb. 21, 2017.
  12. Heart-healthy lifestyle changes. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/heart-healthy-lifestyle-changes#. Accessed Feb. 21, 2017.
  13. Mayo Clinic finds myocarditis caused by infection on rise globally. Mayo Clinic News Network. http://newsnetwork.mayoclinic.org/discussion/mayo-clinic-finds-myocarditis-caused-by-infection-on-rise-globally/. Accessed Feb. 21, 2017.
  14. Riggin ER. Allscripts EPSi. Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. Jan. 16, 2017.
  15. Heymans S, et al. The quest for new approaches in myocarditis and inflammatory cardiomyopathy. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 2016;68:2348.
  16. Sinagra G, et al. Myocarditis in clinical practice. Mayo Clinic Proceedings. 2016;91:1256.
  17. Mankad R (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. March 6, 2017.
  18. Cooper LT, et al. The role of endomyocardial biopsy in the management of cardiovascular disease: A scientific statement from the American Heart Association, the American College of Cardiology, and the European Society of Cardiology. Circulation. 2007;116:2216.

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