Factors that may increase your risk of myelodysplastic syndromes include:
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- Older age. Most people with myelodysplastic syndromes are adults older than 60.
- Treatment with chemotherapy or radiation. Your risk of myelodysplastic syndromes is increased if you received chemotherapy or radiation therapy, both of which are commonly used to treat cancer.
- Exposure to certain chemicals. Chemicals linked to myelodysplastic syndromes include tobacco smoke, pesticides and industrial chemicals, such as benzene.
- Exposure to heavy metals. Heavy metals linked to myelodysplastic syndromes include lead and mercury.
- Myelodysplastic syndromes. Fort Washington, Pa.: National Comprehensive Cancer Network. http://www.nccn.org/professionals/physician_gls/f_guidelines.asp. Accessed Sept. 24, 2014.
- Myelodysplastic syndromes treatment (PDQ). National Cancer Institute. http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/pdq/treatment/myelodysplastic/Patient. Accessed Sept. 24, 2014.
- Vardiman JW, et al. The 2008 revision of the World Health Organization (WHO) classification of myeloid neoplasms and acute leukemia: Rationale and important changes. Blood. 2009;114:937.
- Niederhuber JE, et al. Abeloff's Clinical Oncology. 5th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Churchill Livingstone Elsevier; 2014. http://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed Sept. 24, 2014.
- Hoffman R, et al. Hematology: Basic Principles and Practice. 6th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2013. http://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed Sept. 24, 2014.
- Cook AJ. Decision Support System. Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. July 7, 2014.
- MDS Centers of Excellence. MDS Foundation. http://www.mds-foundation.org/mds-centers-of-excellence/. Accessed Sept. 25, 2014.