Tests and diagnosis
When other treatments haven't worked, ECT may be an option. Set aside preconceived notions and learn about benefits and risks.
Genetic testing is used to detect altered genes that may cause illness or disease. Although genetic testing can offer important health information, it has limitations.
Treatments and drugs
Nov. 27, 2014
- Darras BT. Clinical features and diagnosis of Duchenne and Beck muscular dystrophy. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Oct. 24, 2014.
- NINDS muscular dystrophy information page. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/md/md.htm. Accessed Oct. 23, 2014.
- Mercuri E, et al. Muscular dystrophies. The Lancet. 2013;381:845.
- Benditt JO, et al. Pulmonary issues in patients with chronic neuromuscular disease. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. 2013;187:1046.
- Darras BT, et al. Myotonic dystrophy: Etiology, clinical features, and diagnosis. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Oct. 24, 2014.
- Darras BT. Treatment of Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Oct. 23, 2014.
- AskMayoExpert. What physical and occupational therapy interventions are available for muscular dystrophy (MD)? Rochester, Minn.: Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research; 2013.
- AskMayoExpert. Can braces or adaptive equipment help with muscular dystrophy? Rochester, Minn.: Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research; 2013.
- Darras BT. Patient information: Overview of muscular dystrophies (beyond the basics). http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Oct. 23, 2014.
- Selcen D (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. Nov. 3, 2014.
- Abresch RT, et al. Exercise in neuromuscular diseases. Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation Clinics of North America. 2012;23:653.