In-depth

Symptoms

Dysarthria

Urinary incontinence

Tests and diagnosis

Blood pressure test

Electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG)

MRI

Tilt table test

Treatments and drugs

Pacemaker

June 17, 2017
References
  1. Daroff RB, et al. Disorders of the autonomic nervous system. In: Bradley's Neurology in Clinical Practice. 7th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2016. https://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed March 15, 2017.
  2. Factor SA, et al. Multiple system atrophy: Clinical features and diagnosis. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed March 15, 2017.
  3. Multiple system atrophy. National Organization of Rare Diseases. https://rarediseases.org/rare-diseases/multiple-system-atrophy/. Accessed March 19, 2017.
  4. Multiple system atrophy fact sheet. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/msa/detail_msa.htm. Accessed March 13, 2017.
  5. Multiple system atrophy. Merck Manual Consumer Version. elizhttp://www.merckmanuals.com/home/brain,-spinal-cord,-and-nerve-disorders/autonomic-nervous-system-disorders/multiple-system-atrophy. Accessed March 19, 2017.
  6. Factor SA, et al. Multiple system atrophy: Prognosis and treatment. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed March 15, 2017.
  7. Drug approval package: Northera (droxidopa) capsules approval letter. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/nda/2014/203202Orig1s000TOC.cfm. Accessed March 21, 2017.
  8. Sandroni P (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. March 22, 2017.
  9. Ferri FF. Multiple system atrophy. In: Ferri's Clinical Advisor 2017. Philadelphia, Pa.: Elsevier; 2017. https://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed March 15, 2017.
  10. Coon EA (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. March 22, 2017.