Factors that may increase your risk of multiple myeloma include:
Sep. 11, 2014
- Increasing age. Your risk of multiple myeloma increases as you age, with most people diagnosed in their mid-60s.
- Male sex. Men are more likely to develop the disease than are women.
- Black race. Blacks are about twice as likely to develop multiple myeloma as are whites.
- History of a monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS). Every year 1 percent of the people with MGUS in the United States develop multiple myeloma.
- Lichtman MA, et al. Williams Hematology. 8th ed. New York, N.Y.: The McGraw-Hill Companies; 2010. http://www.accessmedicine.com/resourceTOC.aspx?resourceID=69. Accessed June 24, 2014.
- Ferri FF. Ferri's Clinical Advisor 2014: 5 Books in 1. Philadelphia, Pa.: Mosby Elsevier; 2014. https://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed June 24, 2014.
- Niederhuber JE, et al., eds. Abeloff's Clinical Oncology. 5th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Churchill Livingstone Elsevier; 2014. http://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed June 24, 2014.
- Multiple myeloma. Fort Washington, Pa.: National Comprehensive Cancer Network. http://www.nccn.org/professionals/physician_gls/f_guidelines.asp. Accessed
- Plasma cell neoplasms (including multiple myeloma) treatment (PDQ). National Cancer Institute. http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/pdq/treatment/myeloma/Patient. Accessed June 24, 2014.
- Palumbo A, et al. International Myeloma Working Group consensus statement for the management, treatment and supportive care of patients with myeloma not eligible for standard autologous stem-cell transplantation. Journal of Clinical Oncology. 2014;32:587.
- Kyprolis (prescribing information). South San Francisco, Calif.: Onyx Pharmaceuticals, Inc.; 2012. http://www.kyproslis.com. Accessed June 24, 2014.
- Velcade (prescribing information). Cambridge, Mass.: Millennium Pharmaceuticals, Inc.; 2012. http://www.velcade.com. Accessed June 24, 2014.
- Integrative medicine and complementary and alternative therapies as part of blood cancer care. The Leukemia & Lymphoma Society. http://www.lls.org/#/resourcecenter/freeeducationmaterials/treatment/integrativemedandcam. Accessed June 24, 2014.
- Cook AJ. Decision Support System. Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. May 2, 2014.
- Russell SJ, et al. Remission of disseminated cancer after system oncolytic virotherapy. Mayo Clinic Proceedings. 2014;89:926.
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