What causes morning sickness isn't clear, but the hormonal changes of pregnancy are thought to play a role. Rarely, severe or persistent nausea or vomiting may be caused by a medical condition unrelated to pregnancy — such as thyroid or liver disease.
Sept. 18, 2014
- Smith JA, et al. Treatment and outcomes of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed July. 10, 2014.
- American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology (ACOG) Committee on Practice Bulletins — Obstetrics. ACOG Practice Bulletin No. 52. Nausea and vomiting of pregnancy. Obstetrics and Gynecology. 2004;103:803.
- Frequently asked questions. Pregnancy FAQ126. Morning sickness. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. http://www.acog.org/~/media/For%20Patients/faq126.pdf?dmc=1&ts=20140710T1203324342. Accessed July 10, 2014.
- AskMayoExpert. What medications can be used if lifestyle modification is not effective for nausea and vomiting in pregnancy? Rochester, Minn.: Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research; 2013.
- Creasy RK, et al. Creasy and Resnik's Maternal-Fetal Medicine: Principles and Practice. 7th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2014. http://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed July 10, 2014.
- Goodwin TM. Hyperemesis gravidarum. Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics of North America. 2008;35:401.
- Ginger. Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database. http://www.naturaldatabase.com. Accessed July 17, 2014.
- Acupressure. Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database. http://www.naturaldatabase.com. Accessed July 17, 2014.
- Maltepe C, et al. The management of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy and hyperemesis gravidarum — a 2013 update. Journal of Population Therapeutics and Clinical Pharmacology. 2013;20:e184.
- Slaughter SR, et al. FDA approval of doxylamine-pyridoxine therapy for use in pregnancy. New England Journal of Medicine. 2014;370:1081.
- Czeizel AE, et al. The effect of periconceptional multivitamin-mineral supplementation on vertigo, nausea and vomiting in the first trimester of pregnancy. Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics. 1992;251:181.
- Emelianova S, et al. Prevalence and severity of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy and effect of vitamin supplementation. Clinical and Investigative Medicine. 1999;22:106.
- Gabbe SE, et al. Obstetrics: Normal and Problem Pregnancies. 6th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2012. http://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed July 10, 2014.
- Harms RW (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. July 10, 2014.
- Refruezo JS, et al. Clinical features and evaluation of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed July 10, 2014.
- Diclegis (prescribing information). Bryn Mawr, Penn.: Duchesnay Inc., 2013. http://www.diclegis.com/pdf/Diclegis_Full_Prescribing_Information.pdf. Accessed July 10, 2014.
- FDA approves Diclegis for pregnant women experiencing nausea and vomiting. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. http://www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/Newsroom/PressAnnouncements/ucm347087.htm. Accessed July 10, 2014.
- Murry MM (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. July 27, 2014.
- Parisa Y, et al. The effect of lemon inhalation aromatherapy on nausea and vomiting of pregnancy: A double-blinded, randomized, controlled clinical trial. Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal. 2014;16:e14360.
- Pasha H, et al. Study of the effect of mint oil on nausea and vomiting during pregnancy. Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal. 2012;14:727.