Bronchitis often develops after a cold. Learn how to prevent this potentially serious lung infection.
If you have heart disease, flu shots can reduce your risk of flu-related complications that could worsen your condition. Find out why.
High blood pressure affecting only the arteries in your lungs is known as pulmonary hypertension. Discover the symptoms, risk factors and treatment for this condition.
Edema — swelling caused by excess fluid in tissues — can affect any part of your body. Treating the underlying cause is key to resolving edema.
Fatigue can signal many things. Here are some tips to help you decipher why you're wiped out and to regain your energy.
This whooshing sound in your heart is usually harmless, but in some cases heart murmurs can alert your doctor to specific heart conditions.
Heart palpitations are skipped, fluttering or racing heartbeats that aren't usually a symptom of a serious heart problem. Discover the causes and symptoms of this condition.
Shortness of breath can be frightening. Most of the time, a heart or lung condition is the cause.
Tests and diagnosis
Cardiac catheterization is used as a test for some heart conditions and as a procedure to treat some types of heart disease. Find out more.
Echocardiogram allows your doctor to see your heart in motion. Here's what you need to know about the test.
An electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG) is a test that provides valuable clues about your heart health. Here's what you need to know about the test.
Sep. 15, 2011
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- Heart valves. American Heart Association. http://www.americanheart.org/presenter.jhtml?identifier=4598. Accessed May 23, 2011.
- Otto CM, et al. Valvular heart disease. In: Bonow RO, et al. Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine. 9th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2011. http://www.mdconsult.com/books/page.do?eid=4-u1.0-B978-1-4377-0398-6..C2009-0-59734-6&isbn=978-1-4377-0398-6&uniqId=247741773-3#4-u1.0-B978-1-4377-0398-6..C2009-0-59734-6--TOP. Accessed May 19, 2011.
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- Sorrentino MJ. Medical management and indications for intervention in mitral stenosis. http://www.uptodate.com/home/index.html. Accessed May 23, 2011.
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- Nishimura RA. ACC/AHA guideline update on valvular heart disease: Focused update on infective endocarditis. Circulation. 2008;118:887.
- Schmitto JD, et al. Minimally invasive valve surgery. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 2010;56:455.
- Lehr EJ, et al. Robotic cardiac surgery. Current Opinion in Anesthesiology. 2011;24:77.
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