In-depth

Complications

Flu shots and heart disease

Risk factors

Ehlers-Danlos syndrome

Symptoms

Fatigue

Shortness of breath

Tests and diagnosis

Cardiac catheterization

Chest X-rays

Coronary angiogram

Echocardiogram

Electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG)

Stress test

Treatments and drugs

Heart valve surgery

Mitral valve repair and mitral valve replacement

Feb. 11, 2017
References
  1. Pislaru S, et al. Definition and diagnosis of mitral valve prolapse. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Nov. 23, 2016.
  2. What is mitral valve prolapse? National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/mvp/. Accessed Nov. 23, 2016.
  3. Ferri FF. Mitral valve prolapse. In: Ferri's Clinical Advisor 2017. Philadelphia, Pa.: Elsevier; 2017. https://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed Nov 23, 2016.
  4. Bope ET, et al. The cardiovascular system. In: Conn's Current Therapy 2016. Philadelphia, Pa.: Elsevier; 2016. http://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed Nov. 23, 2016.
  5. Nishimura RA, et al. 2014 AHA/ACC Guideline for the Management of Patients With Valvular Heart Disease: Executive Summary. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 2014;63:2438.
  6. American Heart Association. Problem: Mitral valve prolapse. http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Conditions/More/HeartValveProblemsandDisease/Problem-Mitral-Valve-Prolapse_UCM_450441_Article.jsp#.WDJJF9UrJ0w. Accessed Nov. 23, 2016.
  7. American Heart Association. Atrial fibrillation medications. http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Conditions/Arrhythmia/AboutArrhythmia/Atrial-Fibrillation-Medications_UCM_423781_Article.jsp#.WDJKytUrJ0w. Accessed Nov. 23, 2016.
  8. American Heart Association. Warning signs of a heart attack. http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Conditions/HeartAttack/WarningSignsofaHeartAttack/Warning-Signs-of-a-Heart-Attack_UCM_002039_Article.jsp#.WDJNgtUrJ0w. Accessed Nov. 23, 2016.
  9. Shiota T. Role of echocardiography for catheter-based management of valvular heart disease. Journal of Cardiology. In press. Accessed Nov. 23, 2016.
  10. Mitral regurgitation (adult). Rochester, Minn.: Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research; 2016.
  11. Mankad R (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. Dec. 20, 2016.