Although most people with mitral valve prolapse never have problems, complications can occur. They may include:
April 05, 2014
Mitral valve regurgitation. The most common complication is a condition in which the valve leaks blood back into the left atrium (mitral valve regurgitation).
Being male or having high blood pressure increases your risk of mitral valve regurgitation. If the regurgitation is severe, you may need surgery to repair or replace the valve in order to prevent the development of complications, such as stroke.
Heart rhythm problems (arrhythmias). Irregular heart rhythms can occur in people with mitral valve prolapse. These most commonly occur in the upper chambers of the heart, and while they may be bothersome, they aren't usually life-threatening.
People with severe mitral valve regurgitation or severe deformity of their mitral valve are most at risk of having serious rhythm problems, which affect blood flow through the heart.
Heart valve infection (endocarditis). The inside of your heart contains four chambers and four valves lined by a thin membrane called the endocardium. Endocarditis is an infection of this inner lining.
An abnormal mitral valve increases your chance of getting endocarditis from bacteria, which can further damage the mitral valve. The risk is higher in older men.
Doctors used to recommend that some people with mitral valve prolapse take antibiotics before certain dental or medical procedures to prevent endocarditis but not anymore.
The American Heart Association advises that antibiotics aren't necessary in most cases for someone with mitral valve regurgitation or mitral valve prolapse.
- Pislaru S, et al. Definition and diagnosis of mitral valve prolapse. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Nov. 7, 2013.
- What is mitral valve prolapse? National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/mvp/. Accessed Nov. 7, 2013.
- Problem: Mitral valve prolapse. American Heart Association. http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Conditions/More/HeartValveProblemsandDisease/Problem-Mitral-Valve-Prolapse_UCM_450441_Article.jsp. Accessed Nov. 11, 2013.
- Pislaru S, et al. Nonarrhythmic complications of mitral valve prolapse. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Nov. 7, 2013.
- Wilson W, et al. Prevention of infective endocarditis: Guidelines from the American Heart Association. Journal of the American Dental Association. 2008;139:3S.
- Sorrentino MJ. Arrhythmic complications of mitral valve prolapse. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Nov. 7, 2013.
- What is transesophogeal echocardiography? National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/tee/. Accessed Nov. 13, 2013.
- What is an electrocardiogram? National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/ekg/. Accessed Nov. 13, 2013.
- Nishimura RA, et al. ACC/AHA 2008 Guideline update on valvular heart disease: Focused update on infective endocarditis. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 2008;52:676.
- Guy TS, et al. Mitral valve prolapse. Annual Review of Medicine. 2012;63:277.
- What is coronary angiography? National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/ca/. Accessed Nov. 13, 2013.
- Stewart WK, et al. Mitral valve prolapse. First Consult. http://www.clinicalkey.com/. Accessed Nov. 7, 2013.
- Grogan M (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. Dec. 9, 2013.